Date of Birth: 04/17/1896
Place of birth: Plymouth
Citizenship: United Kingdom
What`s left behind Donald Winnicott?
In the late 1940s in England rose sharply the question of the adaptation of hundreds of children, displaced by the military operations during the Second World War. Winnicott, then - a pediatrician, was one of many experts who have worked with evacuated children.
Even in the years of work the doctor a special relationship of body and mind has interested Winnicott, and he plunged into the study of the analytical approach to the man.
winnicott-donald.jpg After exhausting years of war, society again encourages women to stay at home and take care of the offspring. In this atmosphere, the idea of ??British psychoanalysts of the significance of the early years of a child`s life, a huge impact on the mother`s mental development and the dangers of early separations were received very favorably.
For a long time led Winnicott popular programs for parents on the BBC radio, lectures, and even more reason informal meetings with teachers, doctors, nurses, employees, even clergy shelters, he has released several popular books for parents and actively participated in the work of the British Psychoanalytic Society.
Great influence on Winnicott had the idea of ??"mother" of child psychoanalysis of Melanie Klein, who moved to London in 1926. She was also an analyst Winnicott`s second wife, Claire. And Winnicott during the 4 years spent analysis Eric Klein, son of Melanie Klein.
His task Winnicott saw to create during therapy conditions in which a child`s development can proceed. For it is not as important were the interpretation of the game client or thoughts, as the ability to create the ground for the emergence of insight from the client.
It Winnicott insisted on the Right and Responsibility of analyst "not-know." And he could easily fall asleep during the therapy session.
He was always critical of the idealization of the characters, whether Melanie Klein and the other founder of child analysis and furious opponentka - Anna Freud (daughter of Sigmund Freud).
During the work of Winnicott created the basis for the development of object-relations theory, and some of his ideas have become fundamental to modern psychology.
Enough good mother
Against the backdrop of numerous books and tips for parents on "how really to care for children," Winnicott`s idea of ??the existence of a good enough mother was very fresh. Such it remains to this day.
There is a "good mother", but there is a good enough mother. It creates conditions for the baby, in which he has the opportunity to gradually gain autonomy.
Winnicott never tired of repeating. "The best thing that can make the specialists - is to leave the mother alone" Regular caring mother just knows how to be a good enough mother, and that`s it.
You and the baby are happy with life, but the items from the list of "ideal mother" not been fully implemented? Relax and continue to enjoy the fellowship! It is likely that your dyad (mother-child pair) they do not need.
The transitional object
Remember your childhood favorite toy? This, which was held with you through fire and water, without which you were not ready to go to sleep or go on a trip?
Many adults keep their transitional objects throughout life.
This object appears on the second and third year of life. For some time the child is literally obsessed with it: can not sleep without it, always carries with him, but after a while lose interest in him. In periods of separation transitional object becomes important again (for example, in kindergarten or school).
In general, the transition from the object grows the whole area of ??transitional phenomena (transitional space). Winnicott says that the whole culture of the area - it is precisely the transitional space. The place where meets the inner world of a person with the outside world of other people. So, the artist puts into the picture his personal emotional experience, but transferred in the form of a picture or a story or music, this experience is available to other people.
In France, there is even a special name for the transitional object - doudou. This soft toy discreet colors, small size and pleasant to the touch.
However, do not be surprised: tune function can take a warm blanket, which can suck the edge before going to bed. Or even a plastic dinosaur, this also happens.
When a child`s development conditions do not allow to realize the growth needs of the Self, the auxiliary structure appears in the psyche of the child. False I respond to excessive requests for the individual environment, acting reactively, always in response to external stimuli. Developing true self is suspended and waiting for suitable conditions. Sometimes years pass before a person gets the opportunity (eg, in the therapist`s office) to continue this exciting journey.
Over time, a person begins to show search activity. It was at a time when the environment turns out to satisfy the requests, a person feels alive. In healthy people, False I manifested in the adoption of public policy, traditions, understanding external expectations. But never desire to meet these external requirements is not the leading motive.
"Joy - to hide and disaster - not to be found."
Winnicott, according to the researcher Adam Phillips, highlights the presence of several levels Rhinestone I:
1. When it completely replaces the True Self, hidden so deep that it seems not at all.
False 2. I protect the True Self, which is recognized as a potential and live their secret lives.
3. The main "concern" Rhinestone I - Search and maintaining an environment in which it will be possible existence I False True Self protection against rejection True Self
False 4. I presented as a normal adaptive behavior in the form of "fashion" and "education." Simple courtesy, when a person is able to share their personal lives and the public, without being "wide open heart", just by itself, and suggests the presence of this hidden from the majority of his personal life.
True I have no gradations. It just is. Its features are as follows:
1. True Self - the beginning and the cause of a person`s ability to move from theory to the spontaneous conjectures and assumptions.
2. Only true self can be creative and experienced as present. It is - true source of man.
3. It is associated with a solid sense of self alive.
4. It is the beginning of all generating activity, rather than just passively reacting to external stimuli. It is primary.
5. True Self - the engine and the basis of creativity.
It should be added that Winnicott never narrowed the scope of creativity (creativity) is only the ability to create works of art.
Ability to creatively live every moment of life, he saw one of the main criteria for mental health.
Boredom, on the contrary, seemed to him a manifestation of the disease: "If a man comes to you and talks to you, and you are listening to it, you feel that he oochen boring, then he is sick and needs treatment."
Familiarity with Winnicott should start with his book, translated into Russian, "Family and personal development. Mother and Child. "