Date of Birth: 09/21/1926
Place of Birth: Cleveland
Citizenship: United States
Showed early aptitude for mathematics led Keyzovsky he entered the Institute of Technology (now the University of Case-Western Reserve), where he graduated in 1946 with a degree in physics and mathematics. G. was a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) under the leadership of Carl D. Anderson. In 1950, she was awarded a doctoral degree in physics and mathematics for work on the experimental study of cosmic rays and high-energy mesons at sea level. The year before, at the end of the course work at Caltech, he was accepted to the post of professor of physics at the University of Michigan. In 1953 he became an assistant professor, in 1955 - an associate professor, and in 1957 - full professor.
In Michigan G. brought interest to elementary particles in cosmic rays, which are a great energy bombard the Earth. Interacting with a substance such particles generate new particles also having high energy and usually short-lived. In the 20-ies., When CH.T.R. Wilson invented a camera for the first time physicists discovered a way to make visible particle tracks. The air in a cloud chamber contains a supersaturated water vapor, so the atomic or subatomic particles flying through the camera, causing condensation of vapor in the form of tiny droplets of water along its path. Tracks are made visible and can be photographed for subsequent measurements.
Appeared in the 50-ies. new powerful particle accelerators did not correspond to the old method of finding tracks. They dispersed particles to energies 1000 times higher than achievable twenty years ago. The low density of the gas in the cloud chamber meant moving at high speed particles could pass relatively long distance before they decay or have been discharged. To get the tracks of particles in a cloud chamber, would require the installation of more than 100 m in length. However, the construction of the giant instrument is almost impossible. However, the low frequency of collisions between the atoms and particles impinging gas limits the number of observable interactions and the number of new exotic particles which might be produced as a result of such interactions. The amount of data that could be collected by using Wilson chamber is limited and its slowness: the short periods during which the camera can capture an incident particle tracks must be separated by time intervals of at least half an hour to prepare the necessary equipment.
Having taken part in the construction of several traditional cloud chambers, he began searching for methods of detecting particles of high energy, based on the use of denser substances in the cells with a large working volume. According to G. suitable medium could be superheated pressurized fluid. He was aware that the liquid can be maintained for some time in an unstable state above its normal boiling point. Such liquid boils spontaneously, but it can boil something call. G. tried to establish whether the high-energy particles to be "trigger mechanisms" boil superheated liquid under pressure. He began to experiment with the warmed bottles of beer and carbonated soft drinks in order to determine whether the reactive power on the foaming effect. In the end, after more precise experiments and calculations, he found that under the right conditions, the radiation would "start" boiling liquid. For example, if diethyl ether heated to 140