Senior Advisor to the US President Barack Obama on January 20, 2009. Prior to that, he was chief strategist for the Obama campaign. Since 1984 he worked as a political consultant : in 1985 he founded his own political andadvisory company Axelrod & Associates, now known as AKP & D Message and Media. From 1976 to 1984 he worked as a reporter and political columnist of the newspaper Chicago Tribune.
David Axelrod was born February 22, 1955 in New York to a Jewish family, belonging to the middle class. His father was a psychologist Joseph Axelrod ,mother reconciled in Axelrod `s 1940 has been a journalist for the PM - left political newspaper, and then began working in the advertising business. His parents split up for the first time, when David was five years old, and finally divorced in 1968. Axelrod with his sister Joan was left to live with his mother. Father Axelrod ,error status: 400which is expected to become the single candidate of the Democratic Party in the US presidential election, but was shot in June 1968.
After graduating from high school Axelrod entered the University of Chicago (University of Chicago), and that summer, until he moved to Chicago, got a job as a reporter in Manhattan newspaper The Villager.error status: 400The positions of Chicago Tribune reporter Axelrod occasionally commented on the election campaigns of political outsiders. In 1979, he started lighting campaign Jane Byrne (Jane M. Byrne) - a little-known female candidates for the post of mayor of Chicago. His articles have become an important factor in winning Byrne, who won the election, becoming the first woman -Chicago mayor. This, in turn, have a positive impact on the career of Axelrod, took the place of political commentator Chicago Tribune.
At the age of twenty-seven years old Axelrod was the chief of the Chicago Tribune Chicago bureau in the city administration, combining this position with political observer duties. But,desperate to make a decent career in the Chicago Tribune, in 1984 he joined the senatorial election campaign, members of the House of Representatives from Illinois, Paul Simon (Paul Simon) as the head of the department for public relations. After just a few weeks Axelrod was appointed as one of the leaders of the campaign headquarters of Democratic Simon, ahead in the presidential race Republican Charles Percy (Charles Percy), before thrice elected the senator.
In 1985 he opened his own political and Axelrodadvisory company Axelrod & Associates is now known as the AKP & D Message and Media. In 1987 he successfully took part in the election campaign, the first black mayor of Chicago, Harold Washington (Harold Washington), was re-elected for a second term. Besides,Axelrod has long remained a strategist in the team Chicago Mayor Richard Daley (Richard M. Daley), elected to the post in 1989 and was successfully re-elected in 1991, 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007.
In 2004, as a representative of the press service of Axelrod took part in the election campaign Democrat John Edwards (John Edwards),to run for the US presidency. As a result of the primaries Edwards did not get enough votes, only one round of primaries, which he won, was in South Carolina.
In 2006, Axelrod advised the election headquarters of Eliot Spitzer, who won with the help of the election of the governor of New York ,and Divela Patrick (Deval Patrick), who was elected governor of Massachusetts.
Axelrod seriously thinking about how to opt out of the election campaigns of candidates for the US presidency, as five of them were his former clients. They were Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, John Edwards ,Christopher Dodd (Christopher Dodd) and Tom Vilsack (Tom Vilsack). However, after some thought, Axelrod decided to participate in the election Obama campaign, becoming the main strategist of the election headquarters.
The main theme of the campaign, Axelrod suggested the idea of change. The results showed that he was not mistaken. Campaign headquarters of Hillary Clinton ,Obama`s main rival in the primaries, has counted on the experience and authority of the leader and lost. June 7, 2008 Clinton campaign announced cease and urged voters to support Obama, who became the sole candidate from the Democratic Party. error status: 400in summer 2008 Obama election fund by more than two times higher than the fund of a candidate from the Republicans John McCain. Total Obama managed to collect donations amounting to more than $ 750 million. For campaigning Axelrod team is actively used the Internet and SMS-messages. Besides,Obama received the support of famous cultural figures of the United States, among them Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen and Chuck Berry.
On the day of the presidential election of November 4, 2008, Obama received 51 percent of the popular vote and 300 electoral votes, which ensured him a landslide victory over Republican John McCain. Voter turnout was the highest in the United States since 1908 and was about 64 percent.
Shortly after Obama was elected US president Axelrod was named future senior advisor to the president. Commenting on the appointment, Axelrod suggested that will perform functions similar to thosethat he carried out during the election campaign Obama. Axelrod joined the Senior Advisor of the White House immediately after Obama`s inauguration, held on 20 January 2009.
His future wife, Susan Landau (Susan Landau) Axelrod met at the University of Chicago. They married in 1979. The couple have three children and it is known ,error status: 400In 1970 Julius Axelrod (jointly with Sir Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and storage mechanisms, release and inactivation. "
Axelrod, Julius (Axelrod, Julius) (p. 1912), American biochemist and pharmacologist ,Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970 (jointly with Sir Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler) .
Born May 30, 1912 in New York. In 1933 he graduated from college in New York, and received a bachelor`s degree in the same year he started working as an assistant in the laboratory of bacteriology department at the medical school at New York University. In 1935, while working as a chemist in an industrial hygiene laboratory, he entered the Faculty of Medicine at the University. . In 1941 graduated with a master`s degree.
Working in the laboratory, he met with Professor Bernard Brodie. This meeting influenced subsequent scientific career of Julius Axelrod : After graduation, he went to work in the third research department at New York University at Goldwater Hospital, which was already working Professor Brody. In 1949, Axelrod and Brodie moved to the National Institute of Cardiology in the Department of Pharmacology. After 4 years, Axelrod has become a leading chemist and headed the Department of Pharmacology at the laboratory of clinical trials in two years at the National Institute of Mental Health. In 1955, with the active support of Paul Smith ,professor of pharmacology at George Washington University, a doctorate.
The main topic of research Axelrod and Brodie were amphetamines, stimulants of the nervous system, similar in effects on the body with the catecholamine group substances, catechol derivatives (catechol - dihydric phenol,part of the molecules of a number of natural compounds) , are actively involved in physiological and biochemical processes in the body. By the early 1950s of catecholamines adrenaline was already open (adrenalin or epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands and causes changes in metabolism : increases oxygen consumption, blood glucose concentration ,and increases blood flow in the liver), and in 1946 a Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler succeeded in isolating norepinephrine (noradrenaline - neurohormone compound from the group of catecholamines, is formed in the adrenal medulla and in the nervous system, increases blood pressure, stimulates carbohydrate metabolism) and provethat this substance is a neurotransmitter of the nervous system (mediator - a substance whose molecules can react with specific cell membrane receptors and change its permeability to certain ions, causing the occurrence of an electrical potential ;involved in the transmission of nerve impulses from the nerve endings in the working body and the one nerve cell to another). All catecholamines reflect and determine the state of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (autonomic nervous system - an autonomous part of the nervous system, is not subordinate to the will of man) error status: 400mediators in the physiological processes in the body of animals and humans) in the trophic nervous (nervous trophic nervous system regulating effect on the structural and chemical organization of organs and tissues, their growth and development by influencing the metabolism) , are involved in metabolism and adaptive reactions of the organism ,error status: 400. After a series of studies, Axelrod singled catechol-O - methyltransferase, one of the two enzymes responsible for the breakdown of catecholamines (second enzyme - monoamine oxidase) . In the course of further work Axelrod and his team were able to prove ,error status: 400containing acetylcholine (acetylcholine nervous excitement transmitter in invertebrates and vertebrates, entering the blood, lowers blood pressure, slows the heart rate, increases gastric motility and gut, and others.) Katz suggested that the merger of the bubble with the synaptic membrane is released one portion (quantum) mediator. which interacts with the muscle cells, causing her single weak capacity limit of the muscle fiber plate. As a result of studies conducted by a group of Axelrod`s, it became clear that this type of selection is typical for norepinephrine. This pattern of allocation due to the factthat in the presynaptic region a large number of vesicles containing catecholamines. At the confluence with the synaptic vesicle membrane is also released a portion of the mediator.
Axelrod works devoted to the action of psychotropic drugs on the human body, have provederror status: 400tissues or organs, and provides targeted impact on the activities of other organs and tissues. Julius Axelrod investigated the effect of mediators on the release of hormones and the effect of hormones on the release of neurotransmitters. In 1970 Julius Axelrod (jointly with Sir Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and storage mechanisms, release and inactivation. "
Among the awards : Award of the National Science Foundation (1958)error status: 400error status: 400error status: 400first showed itself in all its glory in the comedy series ` Vozvraschenie`. Thanks to its perfect body and simultaneously the simple charm of a neighbor from the landing, she was able to ` ukrast` glory in what was then the series stars Lisa Kudrow.
Maria Malin Akerman was born May 2, 1978 in Stockholm, Sweden. Career insurance broker father brought her family to Toronto, Canada when she was two years old. Charming child began to take the first steps to the modeling business and acting in television commercials to five years. When his parents divorced, his father came back to Sweden and Malin and her mother - reshiliostatsya model in Canada.error status: 400th, becoming the character in the series ` Earth: Final konflikt`, and then appeared in several other Canadian television projects, such as the TV series ` Hunters drevnostyami`, ` Twice a zhizni`, `Doc` and` Witch klinok`. Television viewers saw the actress in a fantastic action ` The love of dolls with drobovikom` in 2001-error status: 400and in the ensemble cast of the series ` Vozvraschene` created the script by Michael Patrick King and Lisa Kudrow. Her character, pretty and hard of hearing Joon Millken just real ingenue, led Akerman to sitcom star and laid the foundation for further growth and more serious acting.
Over the past year, Malin has worked directly with 4-error status: 400She married a member of the group, the Italian musician Roberto Tsinkone