In 1868, there was quite unremarkable event in Boston : 12 -year-old boy, as befits a small boy walking on a construction site and saw a huge, as it seemed to him ,and very significant person in a big hat and a huge beard. The most exciting thing was that all the people who worked on the construction, belonged to a bearded man with great respect, and ran headlong to perform any of its disposal. Struck by the boy asked the workers about this gentleman and heard it - the architect. The boy ran home and told his father that he was going to become an architect. Thus began the career of Louis Sullivan - the man who invented the skyscraper.
Louis Henry was born on September 3, 1856 in Boston in a family native of Ireland, Patrick Sullivan and daughter Andrin Francois Sheet Swiss immigrants.The family was artistic tradition : his grandfather Louis was a little-known Irish artist, his father - a dance teacher, and his mother played the piano beautifully. Irish grandfather, an artist probably lacked a sense of responsibility, because one day, while walking with his son Patrick at the fairgrounds ,I managed to get lost in the crowd, and since then has not made itself felt. Father Louis, on the contrary, was the person in charge, and considered it his duty to raise her son a worthy member of society, and therefore hard to accustom him to the Spartan way of life : the rise at 5 am, jogging, dousing with cold water at the city pumps, jumping and throwing stones. The mother tried to teach him the world of beauty and called her son in the French manner - Louis -Henri. Luis grew energetic and inquisitive child : in Boston, he studied every street and at school quickly learned thieves slang and habits of small bully. However, early originated desire to build a house is not allowed to join Luis on the wrong path. After a fire in 1871 Chicago was a paradise for architects
At age 16, Louis entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and enthusiastically took up the study of architecture. He studied there for long, because soon realized that the institute would rather craftsmen who know how to build a template ,than the real masters of their craft. Luis dreamed of the Paris School of Fine Arts, but before you go to Europe, he decided to save up experience. He left the Institute, having studied only one year, but considered himself already grounded in theory. Proud of their knowledge, Louis Sullivan was in the office of Frank Furness -one of the best contemporary architects. Mr. Furness, after hearing the story of Sullivan about his success in school, laughed at him, called him a fool, and all scientists - donkeys, announced that the knowledge gained at the institute, have no value, and took Louis to work. From Furness Sullivan learnedthat there are no " general architecture " or " the building itself ", but there are specific tasks that must be solved with the help of cash.
Another teacher Sullivan became famous later William LeBaron Jenny - retired Major engineer troops, organized in Chicago Project Office. Louis arrived in Chicago ,which represented at that time a large ashes, formed after a fire in 1871. Scorched desert, which has become the city was a haven for architects - a year after the fire, more than $ 4 million was invested in urban construction, which represented at the time an astronomical sum ,and designers have been inundated with orders. In the future, namely William LeBaron Jenny created the first high-rise building in Chicago with an external metal frame, but because there is no doubt that Sullivan while working in his office was not in vain.
High-rise buildings were able to build up and Sullivan, but it was not skyscrapers, but rather a very high houseFinally in 1874, at Louis had enough experience and money to fulfill his dream - he went to France and enrolled at the famous Ecole des Beaux Arts - Paris School of Fine Arts. However, the most important principle that he learned in France and loyalty that kept all his life, was taught to him at all in school.Preparing for admission, Sullivan hired a tutor in mathematics - a certain Monsieur bedbugs, which, looking at the textbook Louis on descriptive geometry, advised to immediately throw it in the trash. Jabbing in the textbook, Monsieur Bedbug said : " Look, here`s a rule with five exceptions,but the theorem with three special cases : one is general exceptions and special cases. .. Our principles must be so broad as to exclude any exception " Since then, Sullivan was convinced that one can pick up a universal solution for all class of problems that is. will always lead to success, calling it " principle Bug". Learning in Paris was not easy though because the instruction was in French. Nevertheless, the young Sullivan has shown a lot of perseverance, diligently practicing 18 hours a day. Eventually, he learned not only French, but also re- captured the thieves` jargon - this time Parisian clochard ,which helped him to win the respect of classmates. Before finalizing the year in Paris, Sullivan, as usual, he thought he knew everything, and returned to Chicago.
While in Chicago continued construction boom, Louis was disappointed : the local architects did not experience his enthusiasm for the French diploma and does not give him the position above ordinary draftsman. The architects at that time there were no shortage, America did not have another - architecture. " The free people on free soil ", to enjoy the fruits of American democracy, in those days, much less free kompleksovali before the Europeans, who have been less than civil rights, but it was more history and cultural heritage. At the end of the XIX century American millionaires built themselves mansions in the Roman style, bought the estate of English lords, paying extra for the family`s ghosts, and bought in Europe " on the export " entire castles and abbeys : medieval buildings dealt a brick, and then going on to drawings on the other side ocean. Sullivan was a true esthete and constantly coming up with new designs.
Americans love to all " historical " manifested itself in unprecedented eclecticism that filled American cities. Houses were decorated with Greek porticos Egyptian ornament and married gothic towers. Skeptics styled the then construction " cranky carpenter "but even the most eclectic fighters fought for the purity of historical styles, than create something of his - American. Among the architects it was widely believed that after the Renaissance architecture in general has ceased to exist, since nothing new to come up with is simply impossible, and in educational institutions ,whether the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and School of Fine Arts in Paris, taught mainly how to play the classic examples.
Chicago was no exception : the most beautiful building in the city was considered the Crosby Opera House, which was described in guidebooks as the " Italo- Byzantine structure in the French-Venetian spirit with Norman windows. "Also in Chicago flourished Victorian Gothic, borrowed from England, Italian Gothic that was amazing abundance of arches and intricate outlines of roofs, " the true Norman style ", repeating the outlines of European castles with dark dungeon and lancet windows, loopholes, and GrecoRoman classicism, tschivshiysya gives the building similar to the Parthenon.
Nevertheless, Chicago architects were ready to break the established canons, and one of them was the owner of the architectural bureau Dankmar Adler, who in 1879 invited the young and promising draftsman Louis Sullivan place. Adler was at the hands of a contract for the construction of the Central Music Hall, and it was working hands are needed. Since Sullivan`s except hands and there was still a head stuffed with ideas, a year later, when the Central music hall was put into operation, Adler invited him to become a full partner in your business. And Dankmar Adler was not mistaken in their choice.Thanks to the ideas of Sullivan windows are wider, and the walls - thinner
The partners complement each other perfectly. Adler was a great business acumen, brilliant engineering skills and established business connections all over the city - which is not surprising, since his father was a highly respected rabbi of Chicago. Sullivan youth links have not yet had, and was generally unimportant businessman, but he had the talent to combine their ideas into the design innovations and original artistic solutions. In addition, Louis was a true esthete - a big fan of Wagner`s music and art of Michelangelo ,and a born designer : he is constantly inventing new designs, which do not have analogues in the " historical" styles.
Meanwhile, the demand of the time became the construction of tall buildings. After the Civil War in the United States began an economic boom, which boosted demand for office space. Each developer wanted to pass as many offices as close as possible to the center of the city, using the smallest possible area of land. Under the high-rise buildings in the second half of the XIX century to understand all the buildings over six storeys. The fact that architects are not without reason to believe that anyone would not want to climb the ladder further.The psychological barrier was broken only in 1874, when New York came ten- New York Tribune Building, which regularly working elevators.
The first high-rise buildings were, in fact, no skyscrapers, but just very tall buildings. Eight - ten-storey building built on a massive one-piece foundation and held by very thick walls ,is achieved in the thickness of 3-3.5 m. The windows of the houses were small and " drowned " in the thickness of the walls, so the lighting was a very important issue. Interior space is also lost due to the thickness of the walls, and so lost and real money that could be obtained from its use.In view of the then high-rise, too little reminiscent of today`s skyscrapers : in spite of his height, they seemed heavy and squat.
Companions could not afford to miss a promising market, and the first project of the firm Adler & Sullivan became the office building Borden block. Sullivan has set itself the task of achieving better lighting and more space while maintaining a high-rise. It was invented by the following: The weight of the building was supposed to be supported by external supports, each of which rests on its own foundation isolated. Since the building was held by supports,wall thickness can be significantly reduced. In addition, it is possible to make large windows, which immediately decided to lighting and ventilation problems. Borden block was built, the customer was satisfied, and the firm Adler & Sullivan safely moved into a new office on the top floor of a new high-rise. The idea of using external supports with private foundations began to Sullivan thus " principle Bug", which he later used whenever something had to build high-rise.
Sullivan has formulated five principles neboskrebostroeniya, and they were first used in the construction of Wainwright Building in St. Louis. Since there were many orders, the company flourished. Louis quickly got a taste of his role as a freelance artist and generator of ideas. He lived alone and loved the privacy and peace and at the same time characterized by a combination of artistic pride and distraction recognized genius, whose thoughts soar away from the contemptible vanity of the world, it was quite natural ,if we consider that the practical matters involved in Adler. Good attitude to employees Sullivan knew quite peculiar. He could start a conversation with a subordinate, and soon forget about talking to whom, and what, he is drawn away of his own thought flight. Sometimes, however, he began to sing the theme from Wagner`s operas, was inspired by one`s music,while trying to explain to employees who are Wotan and Nibelungs.
In the first five years of cooperation Adler and Sullivan built four large office buildings, several theaters reconstructed and built dozens of factory buildings, warehouses and private homes. Architects receives a percentage of the construction costs, and the cost was considerable -the mere reconstruction of the Grand Opera House cost $ 55 thousand. , and sometimes the amount goes up to $ 300 thousand. and above.
Experience in the construction of the Central Music Hall and repair work in several theaters of Chicago have allowed the company to win a contract, which dreamed of all the architects of Chicago and who glorified Sullivan and Adler in the whole country. In 1885, Chicago hosted an opera festival, which had been brought on the best tenors, baritones and basses of all the countries where they were. The festival was a great success, and the main sponsor of the event millionaire Ferdinand Peck decided to build a city in a permanent opera house. Naturally, the room should have been ThereforeAmerican huge and even more enormous than the " Metropolitan Opera " in New York. As Mr. Peck was a business man, it was easy to calculate that by selling tickets to the opera such a grand building itself does not pay. Therefore, it was decided to make the building even grander : under one roof with the temple Arts planned to place a hotel ,restaurants and office space that will be rented. Peck issued shares at $ 2 million and bonds for $ 900 thousand. , Attracted reputable investors and announced a tender for construction.
The contract went to Adler and Sullivan, and more good luck wish it was difficult. Construction began on June 1, 1887 ,when two-thirds of the area designated for the construction has not even been bought from their owners. The project had to constantly adapt, as investors were constantly changing plans, for example in the course of construction it became clear that outside the hotel to be a huge ballroom. On -site work 200 workers ,and the work did not stop at night, continuing in the light of electric lamps. As a result, by March 1888 Chicago was the grandest building of all that has ever had.
The contract for the construction of the Chicago Auditorium was the highest achievement of commercial genius Dankmara Adler and Sullivan, he brought not only money but also fameAuditorium is named Colossus, it is a very complex structure, which is crowned by a 17- storey tower. The concert hall was 4232 the place that, to the delight of Chicagoans, was 1,200 more than in the " Metropolitan Opera ". The building area is about 20 thousand sq. M. meters, and it did not know the city equal in height. Construction cost investors a record $ 3.145 million, but no one complained, because the result exceeded all expectations.
Now the name of Sullivan know in all states, and the company has received orders from Buffalo, St. Louis, Seattle, New Orleans and Salt Lake City. The new Adler & Sullivan office is located on the top floor of the Auditorium ,and Sullivan could now look down not only their employees, but also of the entire city.
At last Louis Sullivan had a free hand - he wanted to build something extraordinary, and customers were willing to give him the money. In 1891, in St. Louis ended the construction of Wainwright Building, which if was not the first in the history of skyscraperThen, at least, it was the first skyscraper in modern form.
By the beginning of the construction of Wainwright Building Sullivan already knew how to build high-rise buildings, and not he alone knew how to do it. However, it was Louis Sullivan realized that skyscrapers must be something more than a new engineering solution - they need an ideology, a unified engineering and aesthetic concept ,which would allow them to become something more than a conglomeration of one floor to another.
" ? What is the main feature of the high-rise office buildings - inquired Sullivan in his article, written after the Wainwright Building, and then replied : - The fact that they are very high. " The architect thought that the height should be " dominant chord " itself ,the central idea of the aesthetic of the tower being built, and added that the construction should be "force and power of altitude, the glory and pride of exaltation. " Truly, this man was not in vain memorized all of Wagner.
Louis Sullivan formulated his principles neboskrebostroeniya extremely precisely, and these principles architects followed until now. first- Skyscraper needed underground floor, which will be located boiler, power plants and other devices that provide energy and heat the building. The second - the first floor should be given to the banks, shops and other establishments that need a large space, lots of light, bright windows and easy access from the street. third -the second floor must be light and not less space than the former because it is easily achievable via stairs. Fourth - between the second floor and the top must be placed numerous office space, which can in no way differ from each other in the layout. The fifth - the top floor, as well as the underground ,must be technical. Here are located the ventilation system.
Louis Sullivan contributed to the development of Orthodox architecture. Trinity Church has become one of Chicago`s most Russian buildings
The five principles were used in the construction of Sullivan`s Wainwright Building. Besides,its realization was the main principle of the whole new architecture that the architect has formulated as follows: " The form of the intent. " Attached to the other buildings of Sullivan, this principle could mean that the factory buildings necessarily have Corinthian columns, and the train station - the Gothic spiers. In the case of a skyscraper functionality it was understood in a special way. The main function of understanding Sullivan skyscraper to skyscraper to be, because the idea of power and freedom, which are embodied in this type of building, self-worth, and correspond to the American national spirit. Therefore, to be a skyscraper, the building should be torn up and soar. To highlight the " hover " Sullivan declined from the horizontal division of the facade, replacing it with the vertical. The support posts serving external skeleton, have been used to highlight the aspirations of the building into the sky, and the large windows between the pillars create a sense of airiness. Facing has been sustained in blackred colors and the Missouri granite and sandstone.
Inside the building were placed 9 stores and more than 200 offices, but that was not the point. The first skyscraper was understood as a special type of building with its own aesthetics, and in America got its own architectural style.
Zenith Louis Sullivan fame came in 1893 ,when Chicago hosted the World Exhibition Kolumbovskaya. The space allotted under the pavilions, was divided between the six leading architectural firms, and the largest portion went to Adler & Sullivan for the construction of transport pavilion.
True to his principle of the subordination form of functional requirements, Sullivan designed the pavilion ,which combined low cost and grandiosity, need for temporary buildings, created for the sole exposure. While other pavilions were trying to look something like the ancient temples, transportation pavilion did not hide what he really was - and he was painted a large tent ,which should be enough space and the public, and exhibits.
Transport Kolumbovskoy pavilion at the World Exhibition in Chicago was like both the station and painty farce. For this he was loved and Americans
The shape of the pavilion resembles a huge hangar elongated fitted on the sides of the galleries with Romanesque arches. Architectural minimalism offset by the bright coloring of the walls, which were painted red, blue, orange, yellow and green. Especially liked the public " golden door" - a gilded arch, which served as the entrance to the pavilion, as well as white alabaster angels with posters on which the names of famous scientists have been written. In short,Pavilion was something of a cross between a station and the booth with angels, but people liked it, and the glory of the purely professional Sullivan became nationwide. However, subsequent developments made it possible biographers say that the sun of his glory " had gone down in a blaze of gold ` dverey` ". In 1893, the economic boom gave way to stagnation and crisis, stalled construction of new buildings, and fewer orders. Popularity played with the firm Adler & Sullivan bad joke : a prestigious, and therefore expensive architects nobody wanted to get involved. disputes began to arise between the companions. Apart from the fact that most of the glory of getting any Sullivan, all of a sudden it turned out that the money he earns more as several skyscrapers designed it considered only the baby, but not Adler. In 1895, Adler resigned from the company and the last five years of his life working on his own projects. Without grip Adler Sullivan things got much worse, because he was used in all business matters to rely on older companion. If 15 years of co- brand Sullivan built more than a hundred buildings, then from 1895 to 1924 (the year of his death) he was designed for only 20. In 1909, Louis Henry was forced to leave office in a luxury tower Auditorium and choose the cheaper room, and a year later he left the prestigious Club of Chicago. In 1889, he (the first time) married Margaret Hattabou some, but in 1907 she left him because he could not provide her with the usual standard of living.Sullivan sold under the hammer their rich library, sold the mansion and art collection. But debt is becoming more and pay them there was no way.
Management of the bank in Sydney, Ohio, has demanded from Sullivan to attach to the building columns. Fortunately for the building, the architect refusedFirst time to stay afloat helped glory, which sometimes bring unexpected orders from customers, such as the Orthodox communities of Chicago, for which he built the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity on North Leavitt Street. It was not in the country, probably no more or less representative of the professional association of architects ,where Sullivan was not the chairman or honorary member. He himself suffered a stellar disease in a fairly severe. Staff remembered him as a man who is " on the way to dress and keep the conversation was an aristocrat no less than the old Bourbons. " Sullivan and then was invited to address the meeting of the Company ,more or less related to architecture, and soon he began to feel not only a brilliant architect, but a great thinker on a national scale, designed to teach and educate. His performances were turned into prose poem, filled with pathos is not very relevant. Thus, at a meeting of architects Sullivan spoke with somethinga sort of panegyric entitled " Inspiration ", which had a very indirect relationship to the profession, and consisted of three parts : "Growth - the song of spring ", " Decline - daydreaming of autumn" and " Infinity - the depths of the song. "
Realizing its responsibility to society as a genius ,Sullivan began writing very confused treatises on democracy and the American psyche. Their meaning was limited to the fact that there are two start fighting in the world - Democracy and feudalism, and when they fight, wins that one, then another. Modernity, which accounts for as melting in the banks seemed to him more and more gloomy ,clearly he is leaning towards the triumph of feudal system. Remarkable and a cry from the heart : " Democracy should not betray its dreamers. "
In the declining years at Sullivan had reason to consider themselves faithful - customers began to teach him how to build houses ! In 1917, he ordered to build a branch of the People`s Bank zaemno-Savings Association in the town of Sidney, Ohio. The project, presented by Sullivan, was truly magnificent. Conceived building was to combine small size and dignity, solidity and elegance, and its design was very unusual for that time. Director returned to the project, expressing regret that no building columns. Enraged genius snatched the drawing from the hands of the bankers and said that with the columns can build any fool of fools and that a thousand in each city, but a building which he has conceived more to build beyond the power of anyone. Director reluctantly allowed to build without columns, but kept $ 1 thousand. Of his fee, apparently considering that ,not pririsoval columns, architect considerably simplify your work. Sullivan has not fared so well, to refuse to work even with such an obvious humiliation, and Sydney was probably his only point of interest.
In his later years Sullivan major contracts almost gone. The last thing he had built,It was a small music store
Louis Sullivan was getting old, and the habit of living in a big way, not worrying too much about the future, bad impact on his savings. Worst of all was the fact that by the 1920s it had almost forgotten. To remember him by chance in 1923, Tokyo was destroyed by an earthquake, but one building resisted - that was the Imperial Hotel ,built by Paul Muller, an engineer of Adler & Sullivan `s office. The press spoke of the "Chicago school of architecture " and was surprised to find that its founder lived. By that time, Sullivan was not working. After 1922, when he built a small Chicago music store for a certain William Krause,He did not build nothing more April 14, 1924 he died in poverty.
Among American architect widely believed that Sullivan was more of a decorator and designer, rather than the actual architect. Creator of the first skyscraper and is considered not Sullivan and William LeBaron Jennywho built the first building with an external metal frame. Nevertheless, it was Sullivan created the skyscraper as a symbol of the idea. He believed skyscraper embodiment of the spirit of American democracy, and that with him still disagree as her supporters and enemies. No wonder 54 years after the death of Sullivan, Jean Baudrillard called the " immune system sverhznakami omnipotence " is skyscrapers - the twin towers of the World Trade Center.