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Daniil Galitckiy

Picture of Daniil Galitckiy

Age: 63

Place of birth: Galich

Citizenship: Russia

Background

In 1211 he was elevated to the boyars to rule in Galicia, but expelled in 1212. In 1221 he began to reign in Volyn and in 1229 completed the unification of Volyn land. In 1223 he participated in the battle on the river. Kalka against the Tatars, in 1237 - against the Teutonic Order. In 1238 Daniel Romanovich mastered Galich, Volyn passing brother Vasilyek Romanovich and then took Kiev. Waging a persistent struggle against the princely strife and domination of boyars and spiritual lords, Daniel relied on small serving people and the urban population. He contributed to the development of cities, bringing to artisans and merchants. When it was built Hill, Lions, Ugrovesk, Danilov updated Dorogichin. Daniil Galitsky moved the capital of Galicia-Volyn principality of Galich in Holm. After the invasion of the Mongol-Tatar conquerors in South-West Russia (1240) and the establishment according to the Tatars, Daniel had taken strong measures to prevent new invasions, as well as heightened aggression against the Hungarian and Polish feudal lords. In 1245 in the battle near Yaroslavl Daniel Galitsky troops defeated the shelves of the Hungarian and Polish feudal lords and the Galician boyars, which completed nearly 40-year struggle for the restoration of the unity of the Galicia-Volyn Rus. Daniil Galitsky intervened in the War of the Austrian ducal throne, and in the early 50-ies. He has achieved recognition of the rights to it for his son Roman. Raschityvaya the western allies to confront the Horde agreed to by the papal curia in 1254 the title of king. Daniel Romanovich reign was a period of time the largest economic and cultural development and political strengthening of the Galicia-Volyn Rus.

After the death of his father, the Prince of Galich and Volyn, Romana (1205), his young children, Daniel cornflowers and have no chance to hold on to power. As a result of the riots provoked by Galician boyars Daniel was forced to stay first at Ugric yard, then, with his mother and brother basil in small Volyn possessions.

His dynastic rights Galich said Osmomysl grandchildren Yaroslav, Mstislav the Bold, and other descendants of the Roman family, son Roman - Michael of Chernigov and his son Rostislav. Also on the Galician lands were to claim kinship Arpad dynasty in Hungary and in Poland Piast. In 1214 in the town of Spis King Endre II and Prince Leszek the White, with the consent of Pope Innocent III, it was decided to land in Galicia a new dynasty - the Hungarian prince Koloman and the Polish princess straw (ages 5 and 3, respectively). Thus departed for Hungary Galicia and Volyn Romanovich remained.

Daniel inherited was the city of Vladimir-Volyn, where at first strengthened. When Mstislav the Bold, Duke Toropetskiy, mastered Galich, he made affinity with Daniel, whom gave his daughter Anna. Leshek White, Grand Duke of Cracow, quarreled with him, drove Mstislav and put in Galich prince of the Hungarian (1220). Mstislav again came to Galich and with the help of Daniel, drove the Hungarians (1221). Together with the Russian princes 1223g. Daniiluchastvoval in battle with the Tatars on the river. Kalka, where he was wounded in the chest. The unfortunate outcome of the battle forced him to seek safety in flight.

Soon there arose a dissension between Daniel and his test, because the latter owned by Galich, Daniel believed that their heritage; even more embroiled their cousin Daniel, Alexander Vsevolodovich Belzsky that in troubled times trying to master the Volhynia, which he failed. In 1225, he equips Mstislav against Daniel, who is fighting Galich, in alliance with the Polish Leszek; Mstislav Polovtsian urges, and Alexander, meanwhile, assures him that Daniel is going to kill him; but slander is found: father-in-law, and put up with in the next year they are both fighting the Ugric king. The same, however, in 1228 the Galician boyars, especially Sudislav, persuade Mstislav pass dying Galich not Daniel, as people would like, and his son-Ugric the Prince Andrew.

As a result, Daniel, after a hard struggle with its neighbors and Galician nobles united Volyn (1227g.). In 1229 he devoted Galicians invited him on the throne; Daniel laid siege to the city and, in spite of the burning of the bridge across the Dniester and took it. Released from their captivity, in memory of the former good relations, the King, on the suggestion of Daniel enemy nobleman Sudislava, made a campaign against Galic; I was with him and the king, his father. The city defended bravely, and King, on the occasion of the opening in the camp of his illness, retreated.

But by mastering Galich, difficulty expected of Daniel: the boyars, colluding with Alexander Belz, they decided to kill him; cornflowers and his brother accidentally discovered a conspiracy. Daniel forgave conspirators; against Alexander sent the first Cornflower, and then went himself. Alexander fled to Hungary and once again raised the king. Galich boyars passed Hungarians. The prince went against Daniel, and although defeated, but lost a lot of soldiers that returned to Galich.

In 1232, Daniel, in alliance with Prince Vladimir of Kiev and Polovtsy, spoke out against the Hungarians, but without success; but in his side went boyars; He died soon after the prince Andrei and Daniel took his father`s desk in Galicia.

Against Daniel formed a strong coalition of the southern Russian princes, with the Grand Duke Vladimir of Kiev Rurik headed. The allied princes, bringing with him Polovtzy besieged Kamenetz. Daniel managed to separate from the Polovtsian Union; the remaining princes were forced to lift the siege. Daniel, with the help of the Polish prince, went to Kiev; as a result of such trafficking cases, the Allies hastened to make peace with him.

Daniel Intervention in a quarrel southern Russian princes led to what Mikhail of Chernigov occupied Galich (1233g.). But when Michael was withdrawn from events Kiev and Galich went to Kiev, leaving in his place his son Rostislav, Daniel, in the absence of Rostislav, proceeded to the city and made an appeal to its residents; boyars had to obey the general will and surrendered the city (1238.). Daniel pardoned them.

Tatar invasion. Coronation

Daniil Galitsky repelled the offensive of German knights in the north-western and western Russian lands, in 1238. defeated the invaders at Dorogichinom. Also had a strong influence on the Turov-Pinsk principality.

In 1239 Daniil Galitsky took and Kiev, which before was already under its influence, and put in it the governor Dmitry Eykovicha, who led the defense of the city from the hordes of Batu Khan in December 1240. The city was taken, and the Tartars went to Volhynia and Galich. Daniel was then in Hungary. The land it was desolate; but in order to save at least something, Dimitri persuaded to go to Batu Ugrians. Met with resistance in Silesia and Moldova, the latter had to go back. During the Tatar defeat Daniel was not in his field: he traveled to Hungary with his son Leo woo the daughter of the King; refused, I traveled to Poland, where he stayed until the departure of the Tatars.

On returning home, he found a country ravaged by. Taking advantage of the absence of Prince, boyars willfully in Galicia. As soon as Daniel coped with Boyar troubles as stood an old enemy of his Rostislav Mikhailovich, the son of Mikhail of Chernigov: several times during the 4 years (1241 - 1245), advancing it to Galicia, in alliance with the Russian princes, then with the army his father in law King Ugric, and its allies, the Poles. In 1245 Dani and his brother finally broke cornflowers Rostislav at Yaroslavl r.Sane. Since then, Daniel undeniably owned Galitsky principality. He lived in the newly arranged them Hill, an ornament which is very disquiet.

Despite its power, Daniel was forced to go to the Horde, to Khan`s court in the barn, to acknowledge dependence on the Golden Horde, to save the state. Although it took it quite graciously, but deferred humiliation forced the South Russian chronicler conclude his story with the words: "On meaner evil Tatar honor." Good relations with the Tatars brought, however, favor Daniel, King of Hungary Bela agreed to the marriage of his daughter with his son Daniel - Lion; This kinship has led to the fact that Daniel took part in the struggle with the Czech king Ugric due to the Austrian inheritance, and his son Roman married the heiress of the Austrian duchy and stated its claim to the area.

Daniel`s campaign was, however, unsuccessful. Meanwhile, the need to subordinate Tatars - baskaks Khan appeared in his field - weighed down by Daniel. He spent hiking in the border lands on r.Sluchi Goryn and against the so-called "Tatar people", built fortifications and sought an alliance with the West, inclined to the proposals coming from Rome, by Pope Innocent IV, who was trying to spread the influence of Catholicism in the East Slavic lands and involve a union of Galicia-Volyn land. Famous Plano Carpini, on the way to the Horde, spoke with basil connection of Churches (1246). Nevertheless, Daniel hesitated, but, under the influence of its Western allies, agreed to accept the royal crown and in December 1253g. (January 1254g.) Was crowned in Drohiczyn.

King Daniel Pope declared a crusade against the Tatars; and when its appeal no one responded, Daniel, saving the royal title, terminated relations with the Pope and began to prepare to resist on its own: it has strengthened its city entered into an alliance with the Lithuanian Duke Mindaugas. The time was favorable: on the death of Batu began the Troubles in the Horde; Temnik (governor) Tatar in this part of southern Russia was weak Kuremsy.

In 1254-1255 gg. Daniel released from the army units Kuremsy land on the Southern Bug, case and black grouse, it took Vozvyagel (now the Novograd Volyn). Daniel managed to defend against the Tartars Bakota (Podolia) and take the city occupied by them at Volyn; It managed to repulse Kuremsy from Lutsk (in 1259). But the Horde has established Kubilay, and in southern Russia appointed enterprising Burundai. He quarreled with Daniel Mindaugas and even achieved that in his campaign against Lithuania participated Galicia squads, despite the fact that his son Daniel, Roman, was married to the daughter of Mindaugas.

Allied with Daniel was not: Bela has been weakened by the defeat inflicted on him by the Czechs in his attempts to master the new Austrian Succession. When Burundai demanded that Daniel came to him, he sent for his son Leo himself, and he went to Poland. Tatars demanded the destruction of the town fortifications; I had to give; It managed to retain only hill. Immediately after Tatars forced Galicia squads to take part in their campaign against Poland. The consequence of a campaign against Lithuania was an attack on the Lithuanian Galicia region and the murder of Roman Danilovich. Only the victory over them Cornflower Mindaugas tilted to the world (1262g.).

Of all the external actions of Daniel was his most successful campaign to Yatvingians, which he managed to not just break, and finally forced to pay a tribute to himself. In 1264 Daniil Galitsky died. The chronicler, mourning his death, calls him "the second Solomon."

domestic policy

Daniel fought with feudal mezhusobitsey caused by aspiration Galician boyar elite, and Chernihiv-Seversky and the prince of Kiev prevent the strengthening of government and his brother Daniel Romanovich cornflowers in the Galicia-Volyn principality. It relies on the support of small and medium feudal lords servicemen and citizens who are interested in strengthening the princely power.

Extremely capable ruler, Daniil Galitsky joined for a while western lands. He reformed the army, creating a heavily armed infantry from peasants tamed nobility. Daniil Galitsky has been active Western policy. Under his authority extended Western cultural influences, instilled in the Western forms of government and administration, particularly in urban life. He built a number of new cities (Hill, Lions, etc.)., Moved the capital of Galicia-Volyn principality of Galich - boyars city riots - in the Hill, where he was buried after his death in 1264.

However, the strengthening of the Grand authorities in Volyn-Galician Principality was temporary at Daniel. During the reign of his successors resumed the tendency to feudal fragmentation that provoked Boyar tip.