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Confucius

Picture of Confucius

Place of birth: about 551 BC. e

Nationality: China

Background

His teachings had a profound influence on the civilization of China and East Asia, becoming the basis of the philosophical system known as Confucianism. Real name - Kun, but the literature is often called Kun-tse, Kung Fu Tzu ( "teacher Kun") or just Zi - "Teacher". This is no accident: at the age of just over 20 years, he became famous as the first professional teacher of China.

However, the most likely that its activities have a much more modest size than its Confucians describe the following centuries. Before the victory of Legalism school of Confucius was only one of many areas in the intellectual life of the Warring States, a period known as the Hundred Schools naming. It was only after the fall of the Qin Confucianism revived reached the status of state ideology, which survived until the beginning of XX century., Temporarily giving way to Buddhism and Taoism. This naturally led to the exaltation of the figure of Confucius and even its inclusion in the religious pantheon.

By owning aristocratic arts, Confucius was a descendant of a noble family. In his youth he served as a petty official in the kingdom of Lu. It was the sunset of the empire Zhou, when power of the emperor became nominal, destroyed patriarchal society and the place of nobility came to the rulers of certain kingdoms, surrounded by humble officials.

The collapse of the ancient foundations of the family and clan life, internecine strife, greed and corruption of officials, distress and suffering to the common people - all this led to sharp criticism of adherents of antiquity.

Realizing the impossibility to influence the policy of the state, Confucius resigned and went accompanied students on a trip to China, during which he tried to convey their ideas rulers of different areas. At the age of about 60 years, Confucius returned home and spent the last years of his life, teaching new students, as well as systematizing the literary legacy of the past Shih Ching (Book of Songs), the I Ching (Book of Changes), and others.

Confucius Students Materials Teacher statements and interviews made the book "Lun Yu" ( "Conversations and judgments"), which became the most revered books of Confucianism.

From the classic books of Confucius is undoubtedly the product can be considered only Chunqiu ( "Spring and Autumn", the chronicle of inheritance Lu from 722 to 481 BC..); then it is very likely that he edited the Shih Ching ( "Book of Poems"). Although the number of students is determined by the Confucius Chinese scientists until 3000, and including about 70 the next, but in reality we can count famous names of all his certainties only 26 students; favorite of them was Yan-yuan.

The teaching of

Although Confucianism is often referred to religion, there is no institution of the Church, and it gives little importance to theological issues. The ideal of Confucianism is the creation of a harmonious society in the ancient model in which every person has its own function. Harmonious society is built on the idea of ??loyalty (zhong, & # 24544;) - loyalty in the relationship between boss and subordinate, aimed at preserving the harmony of the society. Confucius formulated the golden rule of ethics: "Do not do a man that do not want to imagine."