Chokan Valihanov

Picture of Chokan Valihanov

Date of Birth: 1835

Age: 30

Place of birth: Kokchetav County

Citizenship: Kazakhstan


Ciocan Valikhanov was born in a family where tradition, beginning with grandfather Wali (grandson of Ablai Khan), the last khan of the Middle Juz and grandmother Aiganym was pro-Russian, collaborationist orientation. The steppe is not yet the time of birth zagaslo Ciocan desire to maintain independence, to defend their own state, personified Kenesary Kasymov, who headed the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people. By the same father Ciocan Chinggis tsarist administration favored, as evidenced by the appointment of its senior sultan of one of the districts and assigning him the rank of colonel. But at the same time, he was an educated man, in particular by promoting Russian scientists in the study of folklore and everyday life.

Chingisovich Ciocan Valikhanov (his full name Mohammed Hanafi, and Ciocan nickname given to the mother) was born in November 1835. He spent his childhood in the desert, among the people, the original letter he received in his native village Kushmurun private Kazakh school, where he learned the Arabic language, got a glimpse of oriental poetry and studied painting. Last session was his genuine passion and surviving sketches Ciocan say that it lived artist of remarkable talent. The father from an early age attracted Ciocan to collect materials related to legends and folk tales, and involved him in a circle of highly educated Russian scientists, engineers and officers.

The years of the most intense spiritual formation Ciocan identity associated with studies in the Omsk Cadet Corps. Here there was a circle of friends that included his teachers and classmates in the face of Orientalist NF Kostyletskogo historian PV Gosiewski, journalist, researcher of the history of the peoples of Siberia and Kazakhstan N. Yadrintsev, outstanding geographer GNPotanin , NF Ann`s and others. Subsequently, in this circle included such prominent figures as the Petrashevist SV Durov, Semenov-Tyan-Shan, EP Kovalevsky, Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The latter wrote in one of his letters to Ciocanu: "I declare to you without ceremony, I`m in love with you ... I love you so much that I dream about you and your fate for days on end." From studies in the Cadet Corps came a man, in which the seeds were sown Russian and modern advanced culture, science and art.

Further career Ciocan was predetermined by family tradition and education: he - a Russian officer, intelligence officer, diplomat and official executing various orders of the royal administration. At the same time, he could not feel his own skin that he is "foreigners" (for example, the bottom shortened class training in the Cadet Corps), I could not see any oppression and humiliation experienced his kind, being subject to boundless arbitrariness with side of the last Russian officer and a gendarme and their local lackeys. There remained only hope to stay human - to devote himself to "neutral case" - science and literary work. Already in the cadet corps he conceived a passion for travel and dream of "open world uncharted Asia." Dream was given to happen, but in a deeper sense than anticipated young Ciocan: he not only researched and described the "unknown" of European science space as a geographer, traveler, he reveals a very center of Asia - a man, his history, way of thinking and feeling . It refers to whether the case of his famous Kashgar expedition, due to which he became famous throughout the world as a brave traveler, Issyk-Kul expedition or a trip to Kul`dzha - everywhere it acts not only as a geographer, economist, ethnographer, the royal agent, and through it all and in addition, in front of us stands a man standing at the crossroads of civilizations able to look at what is seen both inside and outside, through the eyes of the educated European. Global science owes its entry brilliant passage from "Manas" - "Death Kukotay Khan and his funeral."

The most ancient and stable roots Kazakh mentality reflected in some of his research, in particular in the articles "Traces of shamanism among the Kirghiz (Kazakhs)", "The Islam in the wilderness." In a study of the nature of shamanism Zoroastrian Ciocanu it belongs to the unconditional primacy. Zoroastrianism belongs to the family events of the universal order, common everywhere. Ritual forms, symbolic actions that are typical of the mythology as the universal form of the formation of human consciousness, to which must be attributed shamanism, have lasting value in the cultural life of humanity. myth symbols evoke, direct, organize, and involve the person in the process of life and death.

Inherent Zoroastrian beliefs, demand from individual responsibility to the world, the people and to himself, did not lose their inherent value. Zoroastrians worshiped many gods, the forces of nature, fire, water, earth, sun, moon, wind, abstract qualities of individual justice, furious reason, truth. The principle of "truth - the best benefit" requirement to live in accordance with good thoughts, good words and good deed contain the morals of the highest standard.

The fire and the sun especially esteemed. Characteristic of shamanism cult of fire in general and in detail, how to notes Valikhanov, Zoroastrian origin. The veneration of fire, sun, sky, and the deification of the heavenly bodies, the worship of ancestors, the recognition of the gods-patrons of individual aspects of being nomads, the code due actions and prohibitions remain at Ciocanu from Zoroastrianism Kazakhs in "perfect integrity."

Omniscient, wise and supreme deity respectively tstvuet sent via the Turkic tradition designation Tengri - heavenly abode and the presiding deity itself. Hence the expression, "Let heaven reward you," "damn sky", "I swear to heaven" or "sky so beat me." Fire is considered to be the progenitor of all that purifies the soul from defilement, anger is terrible, of a comprehensive healing. Fire sacrifice in the most intimate situations: the birth of a child or the entry of the bride in her father`s house or her husband`s grandfather. About the healing power of water, of the sanctity of Mother Earth is mentioned in drevnetyurskih runic monuments of Kul Tegin and Bilge Kagan. About sanctity of water shows folk custom ushyktau - spraying water.

Poems and some subjects Kazakh tradition ascribes force Kie, worshiping and that observing certain rituals, the person receives a blessing from it - Kut, that is, happiness and prosperity. But this force and has the punitive function of the CESR. Bless and dangerous forces full of man`s inner world, where irreparable impact words and actions eyes.

The syncretism of shamanism to Islam is manifested in such fundamental notions as God, identified with Tengri, Azrael - death, holiness, and holy - a arvahami, with the spirits of ancestors. This is the essence of Religious and Cultural Studies of the Kazakh enlightener, traveler, historian, ethnographer and folklorist Ciocan Valikhanov.

After living for two years in St. Petersburg, Ciocan has worked in the General Staff of the preparation for publication of maps of Asia, he participated in the editions of the works of the Russian Geographical Society, of which he was elected in 1860. There Ciocan published works on the history and culture of Central Asia and the Soviet East; among them research "Kirghiz" (since then called the Kazakhs), "Traces of shamanism in the Kirghiz", "Kyrgyz genealogy", "The migrations Kirghiz," and others in which to compile and synthesize vast amount of material on the history and ethnography of the Kazakhs, their way of life, customs, and culture.

Oral folklore Kazakhs dedicated article "Tradition and legend largest Kirghiz-Kaisak hordes", "Sketches Dzungaria" and others. Stressing the poetic and musical soul of the people, Valikhanov tells the legend, according to which there is a fantastic bird, which flew just above the ground, as it bestows are in the shadow of her wings particle of his genius. This belief is this: over the Kazakhs bird flew quite low, from which derives its special musical talent. Valikhanov emphasized as well that folk poetry of the Kazakh people give "complete picture" of its "historical and spiritual life." Of interest are his remarks about the features improvisatory art akyns, about the kinds of songs, the rhythm of the Kazakh poetry. He recorded the popular epic poem "Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan Sulu".

Now far from the tract Cohen-Togan, where he was buried in 1865, the patient, tragically lonely Ciocan Valikhanov, in the area called Altyn-Emel, built in honor of the 150th anniversary of his birth (1985) memorial complex. Outstanding contribution to the study of creativity has made Valikhanova A. Kh Margulan whereby Works Ch.Valikhanov in five volumes was published in the 1961-1972 years.

Chokanovskaya tradition of careful collection of the spiritual heritage of the people have found worthy successors, including in the face Zataevich that preserved samples of Kazakh song creation for the world music culture. The idea of ??blood Ciocan cultural and historical connection of the Kazakh and Russian people developed L. Gumilyov in his evraaziystva concept.