Charles K Kao
Date of Birth: 04/11/1933
Place of birth: Shanghai
Kao was born in the family of Doctor of Law Gao Tszyunsyana. His grandfather Gao Chuyvan was a famous poet and revolutionary figure. Since childhood, Charles and his younger brother have (now - professor of hydrodynamics) studied the Chinese classics. The International School of Shanghai Charles studied English and French. In 1948 his family moved to Taiwan first, then - in Hong Kong, where Cao goes to college. Further education he receives in Britain: Bachelor`s degree in engineering and electrical engineering in Vulvichskom Polytech (now Greenwich University) and PhD at Imperial College London, who graduated in 1965.
Along with training on PhD Kao is an engineer in the research center of the company Standard Telephones and Cables (STS) in Harlow, where he makes his revolutionary discovery. In 1970 he was invited to Hong Kong University to form the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Four years later he moved to the US to work in the ITT Corporation, which is the parent corporation for STS. At first he was given the post of leading scientific employee, and then - director of engineering works in the Virginia branch. In 1982, Cao becomes the main researcher of the entire corporation and works in the Center for Advanced Technology in Connecticut.
Soon he returns to China, where from 1987 to 1996, directs the work of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. In addition, he has been General Director of the company Transtech, he founded the Academy of Independent Education (Independent School Foundation Academy). Currently Kao lives in Hong Kong and head of the company ITX Services. It is often the case in the US, where his relatives live. Kao married in 1959 at the British Chinese woman Juan, whom he met in London while studying. They have two children - a son and a daughter. Both live and work in Silicon Valley, California.
At the beginning of 2009, the Kao found faint signs of Alzheimer`s disease, which previously suffered from his father. He and his wife decided to donate part of the prize (of Cao received approximately $ 700 thousand.) On research in this area and medical care to patients.
Cao likes to read fiction traditional Chinese Wuxia genre, another hobby scientist - make vases and other articles made of clay.
Kao began working in the field of fiber technology in 1960, when he arranged an engineer in London laboratory ITT Corporation. Here, together with George Hokhemom he commits an innovative discovery, from which it follows that the high losses in the transmission of data over fiber are not caused by the technology itself, and impurities in the glass. The results of their research onpredstavlyaet in 1966, in June released his report outlining the key features of the fiber-optic telecommunication technologies. Outlined in this paper the ideas on the use of fiber for communication needs are the basis of telecommunications today.
The main theoretical conclusion of his work is to determine the amount of signal attenuation threshold. To ensure that information transferred within a fiber-optic channels without significant loss, attenuation value should not exceed 20 dB / km. However, in the 1960s, the fiber attenuation was 1000 dB / km or more. This fact has spurred research to find materials that would be most consistent with the established criteria. Specially for this purpose Kao assembled a team of four people: T. Davis, M. Jones, S. Wright and himself. By testing different materials, the group came to the conclusion that the ideal candidate for optical communication is quartz (SiO 2), which saw the lowest level of attenuation.
Kao first proposed the use of fiber optic cables for the transmission of information over long distances (up to this limited their range of a few meters). At first this idea few people believed, but the personal role of the scientist in the engineering and commercial project radically changed industriyutelekommunikatsy.
Morey Award, the US  (1976)
Rank Prize in Optoelectronics, United Kingdom (1978)
IEEE Morris N. memory Award Liebman (1978)
IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award
International Award LM Ericsson, Sweden (1979)
Gold medal en: AFCEA, USA (1980)
Established IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal (1985)
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
Company Marconi Award, USA (1985)
Faraday Medal, United Kingdom (1989)
James Makgrudi Prize for Research in the field of new materials, the United States  (1989)
James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials
Order of the British Empire Class CBE (1993)
Gold medal, the United Kingdom  (1995)
Medal of Prince Philip, United Kingdom (1996)
Prince Philip Medal
Japan Prize "for pioneering research in the field of broadband fiber-optic communication channels" (1996)
Draper Prize (1999)
Gold medal of the Hong Kong Institute of Engineering (2006)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2009)
Charles Kuen Kao is an honorary professor and Ph.D. many universities, including the University of Glasgow, Peking University, Tsinghua University, University of Padua, Yale University, Princeton University, and others.
In 1996, in honor of the scientist called Kaokuen asteroid, discovered in 1981.