In February 1864 the Italian Carlo Guarmani Teynmu arrived for the purchase of horses, stayed in Arabia and has made the most important trip to Central Arabia. "From him, we learned the first of a long distance to the west and southwest supply Shammar oases and wells," says geographer Hogarth. According to him, Guarmani "not only provided an opportunity for the first time the scientific mapping of Central Arabia, but also gave cartographers more material than any of his successors, except for Hubert", until very recently.
Najd Guarmani attracted by the fact that "from the very ancient times, was the cradle of the most perfect type of horse breeds". Purebred Arabian horses enjoyed the same popularity as the coffee. That is why Guarmani sent to Najd to shammarskomu Prince, who had a particularly great opportunity to help him get the best specimens in their subjects Bedouin.
Guarmani was well prepared for the trip by Najd. He was for a long time was in Jerusalem as an agent of the French imperial carriage and had the opportunity to travel to Palestine, Egypt and Syria, maintaining permanent trade relations with the nomadic tribes of these countries. Especially well he knew the land lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea.
He hit the road January 26, 1864 in a Bedouin costume. First Guarmani arrived at the parking lot of one of the tribal leaders in the border with Petreyskoy Arabia and from there moved into the country in the company of one of the sheikhs of the tribe, his cousin and another rider. Guarmani going from camp to camp, right up to the home of the leader of the tribe of Beni Sakhr; where he managed to exchange three pistols on the dromedary and get a letter of recommendation to the allies Beni Sakhr.
Another letter addressed to Sheikh independent ataybov. He says Roald tribal chief, recommending it as the purchaser of the Italian horses, sent by the Turkish government. Being a Turk in the eyes of the Arabs is not so good, but a Christian and a Frenchman of Italian descent - it`s really quite bad. The first thing you will see Guarmani, arrived later in Hail - the corpse of the Persian Jews killed by the crowd because, calling himself a Muslim and being exposed, he refused to say the symbol of Islam faith. The poor came to the Najd, to purchase horses for the Shah of Persia. In Egypt, which reached the news of this death, we felt that it was a Guarmani, and the family has mourned him as a victim. As a true Bedouin, having with them nothing but worn-out clothes, warm coat lamb leather and fur with water Guarmani with the servant and the conductor comes in half, which has already visited Wallin.
In order not to risk money in the desert, he leaves them to preserve in half and sent to pastures ataybov.
Making purchases Guarmani come to the goal, the achievement of which contributed to his fame. The purpose of this was Khaybar, a town located not far from the caravan route, a little short of the medina. This city traveler di Wartema said that it is inhabited by four or five thousand circumcised Jews, blacks and hated Moors. Entering the city, surrounded by palm trees, Guarmani found that he was in Sudan! As a Turkish emissary, he was politely received by the governor, subject shammarskogo Prince of Hail, and viewed the city as much as I wanted. The city has about 2.5 thousand people and was divided into seven districts, each of which occupied one of the seven valleys of Jebel Harrah irrigated in this place a variety of sources with very clean water. Above the valley rises a high and massive rock on which is built a very ancient fort of Qasr el-Iehuddi, which means "Castle of the Jews." Guarmani visited the ruins of the fortifications, but saw nothing but heaps of stones.
Population, he describes in the following way: it is in fact the descendants of Ethiopian slaves tribe Walad Suleiman and aleydan. They began to settle Khaibar several centuries earlier, when their owners fled the city. However, their possessions gone completely not given way to new residents, while retaining the right to receive post-harvest two bunches of dates with each tree, but does not require any share of the harvest of other crops. Therefore, every year, both the ruling tribe of Khaybar coming to, without entering, however, into the city, as it is believed that the water it is dangerous for whites; Black transmit their due dates and a tribute to the sum of two thousand thalers (9320 francs in 1865), they are required to pay shammarskomu Emir of Hail.
According Guarmani all these black - and Muslims have quite gentle nature.
From Khaybar traveler goes to an area inhabited by sedentary tribe eteym. However, these same lands about a thousand tents pitched his hand, a large genus of the tribe atayba.
To move further east, Guarmani joined atayba. But the tribe just at that time was at war with then reigning Saudi Emir Faisal ibn Saud, and his Bedouin camp removed only to try to break or bypass enemy lines, were on the surrounding heights.
Guarmani unable to give up the pleasure of seeing Najd and wants to be represented by Emir Feisal and his son.
But he was stopped by the very Anayzy riders Emir Abdallah. Guarmani is they had with him letters of recommendation to the emir. Emir himself, not trusting Turk refuses to accept and carry out orders in Anayzu where the local governor allows him to continue the path to Hail.
Residents Anayzy engaged mainly in that have bought from Bedouins foals grown and sold them then to adult horses in Persia and India.
Guarmani leaves Jebel Shammar and guided along the route traveled by Vallin, but in the opposite direction.
From Damascus he returned to Jerusalem.
His book differed sincerity and contained data on Bedouin tribes, full of geographic information. All this is made possible mapping of central Arabia.
So thanks Wallin and Guarmani were investigated and the state of North Arabia Rashididov princes.