Date of Birth: 10/30/1877
Place of birth: Moscow
Vysheslavtsev, Boris (1877-1954), Russian philosopher. Born in Moscow, 3 (15) in October 1877. In 1899 he graduated from the law faculty of Moscow University, he continued his education at Marburg in P.Natorpa and G.Kogena. In 1914 he defended his master`s thesis Ethics of Fichte. Fundamentals of law and morality in the system of transcendental philosophy. Since 1917 - Professor of Philosophy of Law at Moscow University. In 1922 he was expelled from Russia. He taught at the NA Berdiaev based religious-philosophical Academy in Berlin, at the Theological Institute in Paris, worked as an editor at the publishing house YMCA Press. From 1925 - one of the editors of the religious-philosophical journal "The Way". In 1950 he collaborated with the National Labor Union (NTS). Major works Vysheslavtseva emigre period: Ethics of Eros transfigured. Problems of Law and Grace, 1931; The crisis of industrial culture, 1953; Eternal in Russian philosophy, 1955. Died Vysheslavtsev in Geneva on October 5, 1954.
Already in his book on Fichte, positively describing the principles of transcendental idealism, Vysheslavtsev had emphasized "irrational" elements Fichteanism and the value of intuition in cognition. "The subject of metaphysics - the whole infinity of mysterious, unfolding intuition." Intuition is a kind of "breakthrough" to the absolute, which "is not given in terms." This interest in the irrational in being and knowledge was further developed in the subsequent Vysheslavtseva work. The Ethics of Eros transfigured he argued that "we are surrounded by the unknowable and unprovable" that "being an irrational depth looks at us from everywhere." At the same time Vysheslavtseva "irrational" is not opposed to reason, but rather a "foundation" of intelligence in the world and in man: "It is absolute, being irrational, it forms the basis of sound as its basis." In this respect, a philosophical position is close Vysheslavtseva metaphysics of unity (especially the doctrine of the "incomprehensible" SLFrank).
The experience of building the moral metaphysics Vysheslavtsev turned to psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Jung. The tradition of normative ethics ( "Ethics Act"), he believed, was shattered in its foundations themselves through the teachings of the "unconscious." Kantian duty appeals only to reason and completely ignore the irrational, unconscious roots in the human psyche. The basis of the "new" creative ethic at Vysheslavtseva should become "the transforming power of the imagination." Psychoanalytic "sublimation", in his interpretation, captures the same dynamics of mental life, which in Christian mysticism appears as a process of spiritual transformation and "deification" of the individual. New ethics, "overcoming moralism", connects these two traditions and is able to "transform and sublimate." Irrational (erotic) and rational in man form one basis for its ethical stance and moral action. The principal disadvantage of the psychoanalytic understanding of "Sublimation" is, according to Vysheslavtseva, in the absence of Freud`s theory of the metaphysical "vertical": there is no absolute, no divine-human process and, accordingly, there is no higher (uplifting) for the purpose of sublimation, which is in the "flatness" option is -pozitivistskom or chaotic vital act, or acquires a "technological" meaning in the system of psychoanalytic practice. For philosophers who defended the metaphysical sense of "unconscious" and, simultaneously, recognize human freedom (freedom of "arbitrariness", "absolute choice"), Vysheslavtsev primarily attributed N.Gartmana. For the most Vysheslavtseva appeal to the unconscious - a movement to the Absolute, to the "evidence of the irrational depths of being." Without this "uplifting" target man is "chained in itself", "caught in a vicious circle of self-consciousness." Ultimately, according to Vysheslavtseva, very human freedom is revealed in relation to the Absolute, and is none other than the "free relationship."