Date of Birth: 01/30/1894
Place of birth: Sofia
Tsar Boris III ascended the Bulgarian throne in 1918. By the end of his life he has made individual dictatorial power in the country. Boris III of Bulgaria drew the Second World War on the side of the fascist states.
Boris turned 24 years old when his father, King Ferdinand signed an abdication in favor of his son. Ferdinand was forced to leave big politics after the massive defeat of Bulgaria on the Salo-nikskom front in mid-September 1918. This catastrophe brought Bulgarians national humiliation and countless disasters. The Bulgarian government was forced to sign the Entente armistice agreement on the terms of full surrender.
Boris took the imperial throne in difficult times. He could not afford to be an autocrat, to exercise tyranny and brutality, to surround himself with luxury. The world has changed. Revolution destroyed the once powerful monarchy of the Romanovs, Habsburgs, the Hohenzollern. Boris was forced to adapt to the new historical conditions. Unlike his father, he led a frugal life, was regarded as an exemplary family man, did not disdain communion with the lower strata of society. Citing his childhood and youth in Bulgaria, Boris`s father knew better life and customs of the people.
Relationship Ferdinand and Boris were mixed. Ferdinand in the family he behaved like a despot. Boris childhood did not like his father for that. In addition, Boris constantly feared that Ferdinand will return to the Bulgarian throne. Father son managed to survive for five years; Boris died in 1943, and Ferdinand in 1948. Boris strongly opposed the desire of Ferdinand to come to Bulgaria at least in order to just stay. Tom and so had to live out their lives in Coburg (Bayern).
However, Boris kept the limits of decency, attend parent in the family castle, accurately translating the requests made to them sums of money, and even listened to the advice of his father`s policy. Ferdinand, as it were invisibly present next to Boris. In the office of the king over the desk hung a portrait of Ferdinand constantly.
Bulgarian King Boris was an educated man with varied interests. Especially it deals with the history, natural history and botany. Boris made sure that the garden at the country palace in Vranje, six miles from the capital Sofia, has become one of the most beautiful in Europe. Garden arouse admiration of visitors. To win the favor of the king, it was not the best way, how to ask for his help in identifying some of the rare plants. In his youth fond of Boris railway equipment. This enthusiasm. show photos in the press, in which the king sitting in the booth shot locomotive. (Boris once passed the exam for driver of the locomotive). With amazing for royal blood meticulous person Boris delved into many other issues. He once astonished the British naval attache their awareness of the development of the English fleet, armed ships and their commanders. This is not surprising if you know that the military case was familiar to Tsar Boris firsthand. He graduated from the Sofia Military Academy, during the First World War was at the headquarters of the commander of the army. Ability to conduct discussions on various topics, moreover, in a confidential manner, allowing Tsar Boris quickly gain the favor of many met him politicians, diplomats, representatives of the creative intelligentsia, its approximate helped to create around the personality of the king halo "wise ruler."
In terms of mental King Boris was a man of extremely unbalanced. His mood changed frequently, attacks apathy and fear of the future were replaced by brief periods of calm, after which came the thought of renouncing the throne or suicide.
Strong Boris health allowed him no harm to the body to make every day a lot of drugs. The man is extremely suspicious, he constantly read the medical literature and found in all new and new diseases from which immediately begin treatment.
In political affairs, Boris followed the traditions of their ancestors from the Coburg Bulgarian kings dynasty. King has always sought to achieve their goals difficult, but not in a simple way, constantly resorted to political intrigue, was secretive and resourceful.
Boris had mastered the art of mass brainwashing. To do this, in daily life he created for himself the most ordinary, everyday situation, stressed that close to him and commoners needs care. To maintain this reputation Bulgarian monarch frequented mass celebrations, the peasants at home, talked to people from the lower classes, could a demonstrative patience to share the fate of marching in the parade in the rain soldiers from moving to the surrounding attention to provide urgent assistance to the soldier, who in the eyes flew mote, or people who have got into an accident near the suburban presidential palace. In all these actions is easy to see the influence of the famous teacher of many monarchs, kings and dictators - Niccolo Machiavelli, "Licina is necessary for sovereigns, as most judges them by what they seem, and only a very few can distinguish apparent from real" - tsar Boris is usually applied on a regular basis.
Intrigue and pretense was necessary because Boris did not immediately and not easily managed to establish personal power. In 1923, the Government of the Bulgarian People`s Union, landowning, headed by Stamboliyski, which slipped over to prison even Ferdinand, Boris put in such condition that it could only reign but not govern. The monarchy in Bulgaria was held only by the intervention of the victorious powers imposed on the country stringent conditions of the peace treaty signed in 1919. Boris clenched his teeth in impotent rage, and played the role of "docile monarch."
June 9, 1923 in a military coup Stamboliiski`s government was overthrown. The main role in the coup played a Bulgarian military elite. The most conservative, most preferred, relatively independent in the state apparatus, the force, formally standing outside politics, actively intervened in the course of events, when, in her opinion, "violates national unity," "flouted national ideals", "undermined the state pillars":
Boris in the period of preparation and holding of the coup tried to stay in the shadows. The peasant masses supported Stamboliyski and the king does not have to cause them to hate. For a couple of days before the overthrow of the government Boris went to the suburban villa Stamboliyski and stayed there for almost a whole day, in every way showing their friendliness to the popular leader of the people. Stamboliyski executed, but the king was in no hurry to appear "in public", dealing with the conspirators, through their proxies. Only carefully assessing the situation, the king signed a decree on the transfer of power to the pro-fascist government headed by Professor Alexander Tsankov Sofia University.
However, after the coup 9 July 1923 the position of Tsar Boris remained shaky. In September 1923, he had to endure a few unpleasant days, very reminiscent of the events of 1918. The Bulgarian Communist Party raised an armed revolt. In those circumstances, Boris gave Army a free hand. The army suppressed the uprising, for the second time rescued Tsar Boris.
The new Prime Minister Tsankov in 1926 began a moderate democratic reforms that have already failed by 1930. In 1930, Boris married the Italian Princess Giovanna. From marriage to Giovanna Boris had two children: a daughter Marie Louise (born in 1933). Simeon and son (born in 1937).
Strengthening the role of the army in the political life of the country soon led to the fact that some high-ranking officers, a taste for politics, began to claim to establish his dictatorship, while swinging on the power of the king. In many ways there was a fault of Boris, who has repeatedly made statements that would impair the authority of the military. The military did not want to forgive this and discontent grew.
In this Boris was convinced at the time of the coup May 19, 1934, organized by members of the officers` union "Military League" and closely cooperate with it political group "Link". Above Boris again looming sword of Damocles. In the pocket of one of the military leaders of the opposition who came to Boris approve the new government, a decree was lying about his abdication in case if he does not agree to their demands. But a relatively small group of conspirators did not support the monarchist-minded about the bulk of the officer corps. Repression and flattery, threats and bribery, intrigues, clever play on the problems from the outset conflicts between members of the coup, King Boris was able not only to secure the throne by the assassination of senior officers, but also to transform the army into a military support. Using fruit 19maya1934 coup, he has made the establishment of the monarchical dictatorship, similar in nature to gain a foothold in Germany, Hitler`s regime.
In Bulgaria, the political parties were disbanded, effectively abolished Turnovo Constitution in 1879. At the same time Boris stressed that he is against the "absurd theories" and "totalitarian methods" of the Nazis. Hitler despised the aristocracy and especially not stand on ceremony with its ally - Tsar Boris. If Ferdinand Germans did not touch, then Boris`s sister - Hope, Duchess of Wurttemberg, has repeatedly been subjected to harassment.
Flattering Hitler and his henchmen in the eyes of the king Boris nevertheless times in a burst of candor trustees expressed criticism at the German Fuhrer`s and other leaders of the "Third Reich".
But much of Hitler attracted Boris, and he talked about it, without any shade of flattery. The growing political and military successes of the Nazis - that`s what defines the relationship of the Bulgarian king and his entourage to the latter. King, however much he may say its rejection of totalitarianism, certainly impressed the principle of authoritarian rule. The political reality in Bulgaria, especially the end of the 30 -. The beginning of the 40s, testified that Boris thoughts were directed to embodied in the life of this particular principle. King carefully delved into the most minor political affairs, trying to keep the country under severe control. In the end he achieved absolute power.
However, King Boris established a personal dictatorship differently than did Hitler and Mussolini. The Bulgarian monarch, for example, did not go towards the creation of a mass party. In contrast to the Italian and German
Nazi leaders, he did not have to seize power with the help of such a party. In its existence, Boris saw even a potential threat to their power. King more attracted "non-party" regime. It is preferred to run the country with the help of not belonging to any party officials and advisers of the court camarilla.
Close to the king during the last years of his life was Bogdan Filov, the prime minister, whose name is associated tragic pages in the history of Bulgaria during the Second World War. Starting in 1906, official career modest museum employee Sophia, he then came to the fore in the scientific field, he has become a full member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, professor of Archaeology at Sofia University, received high academic qualifications in scientific institutions in Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria. Bulgarian monarch could not impress that Filov acted as a staunch defender of the concept of "non-party" regime. "This kind of mode - claimed eminent scientist - should be based on the closest collaborators of power - government and municipal officials, some public institutions controlled by the authorities and cooperating with them." Such views Filov quite satisfied Tsar Boris. As a result, he became Minister of initiation, and in February 1940, November 1938 - Prime Minister.
On the activities of Tsar Boris imposed a large imprint of fear of the Communists. He thought of the revolutionaries in the West are too meek and household. The revolutionaries of the East seemed to him infinitely more dangerous. And the more he tried to avoid the "red revolution" in the Balkans, where, after this, as he thought, the rivalry between the plurality of nations would lead to "unimaginable horror" .Boris, unlike the militant chauvinists, preferred to pursue "national ideals" peacefully by diplomacy. The king sought to achieve in the Balkans era "does not violate the peace and order"
Bulgaria, according to the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1919 with the victorious countries in World War I, has been weakened militarily, financial difficulties also hampered the organization of the Bulgarian armed forces. King Boris was forced to reckon with this fact. In addition, the Bulgarian monarch knew that the country alive memories of the crash of 1918, and it imposes a strong imprint on his foreign policy.
To implement their revisionist program Tsar Boris sought to enlist the support of the great powers. The most favorable response it found in Hitler`s Germany, aims to eliminate the system of the Treaty of Versailles. The convergence of Bulgaria and Germany began immediately after Hitler came to power. Bulgaria needed in external markets. She found them in Germany. There was the conclusion of several trade and financial agreements between Bulgaria and Germany.
But by nature cautious and inclined to King Boris spent maneuvering pro-German course gradually and with many reservations. He was in no hurry with the adoption of "fixed political commitment", he tried for a time to maintain a certain political independence and freedom of action in foreign affairs, assuring disgruntled that German and Italian diplomats that it is this line corresponds to the interests of the powers "axis".
The reason for delaying Boris policy consisted in the fact that he is increasingly engaging in orbit foreign powers "axis", intended to minimize the associated risk of deterioration and even the rupture of relations with other leading nations. Bulgarian monarch maneuvered in a manner consistent with the development of the international situation, which has changed very quickly. In his choice of King Boris was guided primarily problems of preservation of personal power. He claimed that the throne will protect against all attacks by all means.
All diplomatic maneuvers in the initial period of World War II, Tsar Boris covered neutrality flag, believing that such a course of action will have a favorable effect for it, and inside the country, as many in Bulgaria was set up to co-operation with the Soviet Union.
Under the influence of a number of factors Tsar Boris delayed Bulgaria`s accession to the Tripartite Pact. But the fear of communism, confidence in the ultimate victory of German weapons, arose under the influence of the military successes of the Wehrmacht in Western Europe, the temptation to get the promised Hitler territorial increment in the case of Bulgaria`s accession to the Tripartite Pact took over the fluctuations of the king. In addition, Boris understood that the delay in joining the Tripartite Pact could lead to tragic consequences - German troops enter the country without his consent, and he will be in the role of the reigning prisoner. March 1, 1941 a protocol on the accession of Bulgaria to the Tripartite Pact was signed.
1918, at the beginning of his reign, under the influence of events on the Salonika front, Boris swore that no Bulgarian soldiers will no longer be involved in the war. This oath was a rare exception to the statements of Tsar Boris - she was sincere. However, the circumstances were stronger than the desires of the monarch. Boris, however, failed, in contrast to all other allies of Hitler, not to send Bulgarian troops to the front, to restrict their participation in the occupation war Yugoslav and Greek territories. Bulgarian Army acted as "to maintain order" in the rear of the Nazi armies. But Hitler himself saw fit to keep the bulk of the Bulgarian army at the Turkish border to prevent the entry of Turkey into the war on the side of the anti-Hitler coalition. And yet, under pressure from Germany during the war, Boris had to increase their military commitments. The Germans were granted naval bases and other military entities on Bulgarian territory for military operations against the Soviet Union. Repeatedly expanding the Bulgarian occupation zone in Yugoslavia and Greece, there were sent more Bulgarian troops to tighten repression against the Yugoslav and Greek partisans, as well as to the release of German divisions for more "hot" areas of military operations, especially in the East. Boris III made a fateful step, announcing in December 1941 under German pressure, Bulgaria refers to the obligations under the Tripartite Pact, the US and British war. Boris III was hoping that the war would only be "symbolic." This step led to the fact that two years later, the Anglo-American aviation has devastating bombing of Sofia and other Bulgarian cities.
Relying on Germany, Boris, like his father in 1915, made a fatal mistake. After Stalingrad and Kursk battles, the Allied landings in North Africa in November 1942 and in Sicily in June 1943, Italy`s exit from the war it became clear that Hitler`s Germany expects a close military collapse. Bulgaria was on the brink of another national disaster. At this critical moment for the country Tsar Boris suddenly at the end of August 1943 he has died.
The circumstances of his death remained a mystery for a long time and have generated a lot of conflicting versions. Some authors have suggested that he was shot by a personal bodyguard. Others believe that he was poisoned by the Nazis, which was not satisfied with the assistance that Bulgaria has provided Nazi Germany. Others attribute it to the death of a heart attack.
The official medical report, issued August 30, 1943 read: "Death was caused by blockage of the left heart artery (thrombosis), double-sided pneumonia and bleeding in the lungs and brain."
In recent years, researchers tend to believe that the official report truly reflects the cause of death. It seems that the Bulgarian monarch died a natural death.
Tsar Boris`s body was buried in the frequently visited them during the life of the Rila monastery, beautifully located in the mountains a few dozen kilometers from the capital Sofia. The increased pilgrimage to the place of burial of the king forced the government of the Fatherland Front in 1946 reburied in the tomb inaccessible for visitors Vransko palace park. After the royal family`s departure from Bulgaria Vranskyy Palace was turned into a government residence, the king`s tomb and a small chapel soon disappeared. About what happened with the coffin and the remains of the king, reliable information is not yet available.