Date of Birth: 09/11/1900
Place of birth: Prienai
Psychologist, Doctor of Psychology (1960), Professor (1965). She graduated from the department of psychological philosophical faculty of the University of Berlin (1927). Z. began his scientific career under the guidance of the Berlin psychologist Kurt Lewin. Discovered in the thesis work Z. fact emptive action pending memory entered the world literature under the name "effect (or phenomenon) Zeigarnik". Z. worked in Mental Hospital-Union. Institute of Experimental Medicine (VIEM) with Vygotsky, applying the ideas of cultural-historical approach to the understanding of mental pathology (1931). During World War Z. engaged in the restoration of the higher mental functions after traumatic brain injury in the reduction of hospital Kisegach under the leadership of Luria. After the war (1943-1967) led the laboratory Z. abnormal psychology Institute of Psychiatry MZ RSFSR at the same time (1949), taught at the Moscow State University. University. C - the organizer of the system of retraining and advanced training of practical psychopathology of the country, the head of the All-Russian patopsihologicheskih seminars (since 1960), Honorary Member and member of the Presidium of the USSR Society of psychologists, chairman of medical psychology section. She participated in the International Congress of Psychology, at the XVIII International Congress of Psychology in Moscow and the XIX International Congress in London was the organizer and co-chair of abnormal psychology sections. Outstanding contribution to the development of the west of psychological problems was evaluated by the American Psychological Association, awarded her a prize named after Kurt Lewin (1983).
B.V.Z. - One of the founders of the Faculty of Psychology, Department of neurons and abnormal psychology. As it developed problems with mental pathology of mental illness for more than 40 years. C, based on the theoretical position of the national psychological school of Vygotsky - Leontiev - Luria, created a new scientific field - experimental psychopathology, which has its own subject, conceptual apparatus and methodological tools. She has trained a large number of professionals currently working in the different fields of psychology. H. Proceedings in the field of abnormal psychology opened up the possibility for the emergence of a new area of ??psychological practice.
In 1978, Professor Z. was awarded the Lomonosov Prize (1st degree) for a series of works devoted to the problem of mental disorders in various mental disorders, correction and rehabilitation of the mentally ill (the work published in 1962-1976.). In the works of this cycle is given theoretical and methodological substantiation of the psychological study of the pathology of the psyche of the mentally ill, it is shown that for various mental illnesses are detected essentially the same pattern of mental functioning that is normal: just change the conditions under which these patterns are detected. As is normal, and when mental illness is a major source of development sotsialnayasreda surrounding the sick world of human culture. Own activity of patients - the main factor simptomoobrazuyuschy. Psychological mechanisms involved in the formation of psychopathological picture of the disease, therefore, psychological correction and rehabilitation of patients is a necessary condition for their return to normal social life, the condition of restoring their mental health. In studies Z. it is shown that the collapse of the psyche is not the negative of its development, a theoretical and experimental study of the situation. The latter is important for solving research problems in the field of psychopathology, as well as for the practical work of psychologists in this field.
Results of the study of pathology of cognitive activities (thinking, first of all) with mental illnesses are summarized in the monograph "Pathology of thinking", Moscow, 1962 (published in many countries). For the first time given a detailed theoretical justification for the approach to the study of the psychological phenomenology of disorders of thinking, we describe a set of methodological procedures that are adequate to solve this problem, provided the original systematization of violations of thinking. The latter puts into the hands of researchers and practitioners the key to understanding the origin of these disorders opens up opportunities for a more differentiated diagnostics, allows the use of these data to establish nosological diagnosis in psychiatry. This typology is widely used in our country, and abroad. Studies of personality pathology in mental illness, as summarized in the book "Personality and pathological activities." M., 1971. It has been shown that the psychological study of personality abnormalities is important both for understanding the nature of mental illness, and to analyze the structure of the normal flowing of mental activity. The description of the different types of motivation and personality disorders, theoretically grounded and empirically proved the role of the personal factor in the structure of abnormal mental processes, the ways and means of possible psychological rehabilitation of patients through the use of stored personal potential; The prospects of studying the pathology of personality needed to understand the nature of complex psychopathological phenomena. Among the works of Z. occupies a special place textbook (Pathopsychology. M., 1986), addressed to students studying psychology. This is the first edition of the national psychology of this type containing in systematic form a holistic view of psychopathology as a special area of ??knowledge; it also discusses the place of abnormal psychology in the other sciences, the importance patopsihologicheskih research to address the general theoretical problems of psychology. Currently reprinted repeatedly textbook Z. is one of the main textbooks in the preparation of university specialists in psychology.
The faculty of Moscow State University psychology course reading Z. abnormal psychology, courses on pathology of thinking, foreign theories of personality.