Date of Birth: 02/10/1865
Place of birth: Manchester
Citizenship: United States
The following year, she was awarded a scholarship, which he used to complete the training in Germany in 1887 ... 1888. Otto Fischer at Erlangen University. There he studied the properties of a chemical compound (nitrozonaftilamina), and for this work he was awarded a doctoral degree. In the same year he became a lecturer at the rate of chemistry at the University of Manchester, where he remained until 1897, when he was invited to a chemist in Dzhennerovsky (later Listerovskogo) Institute of Preventive Medicine in London. Initially, he taught chemistry and microbiology, and then became interested in the history of science. However, after a few years he again fully immersed himself in research, especially in the area of ??sugar fermentation studies.
During the fermentation makroenergeticheskoe compound such as sugar, in the absence of oxygen disintegrates to or alcohol and carbon dioxide, or to an organic acid. G. took special interest in the fermentation initiated by certain bacteria, and since 1899 has published several articles on this subject. The fermentation also occurs in the cleavage of sugar yeast, unicellular fungi. It was believed that only intact and living cells may determine the fermentation process. However, G. aware that the German chemist Eduard Buchner in 1896 showed that the liquid is separated from the yeast, causing fermentation, although the fluid does not contain live yeast cells. Moreover, Buchner demonstrated that one of the components of the extract, the enzyme that he nazvalzimazoy cleaves sugar molecule into fragments. The enzyme is the product of cell activity and functions as a catalyst, i.e. It accelerates specific chemical reactions in the cell, without entering into the reaction.
Some scientists still believed that fermentation takes place as a result of exposure to a mysterious "life force" in the living cell, but in 1904 for, it became apparent that the fermentation - is a set of chemical processes. To confirm his hypothesis, he received the drug Zymase and filtered it under high pressure through a porous porcelain soaked gelatin. He discovered that zymase enzyme consists of two components, one of which passes through a filter, and the other - no. G. also discovered that fermentation stops when he removes any component from a yeast extract. This was the first evidence that a component of the enzyme requires the presence of a second for the effective operation. G. left the name "zymase" of one component and another component (or coenzyme) began calling kozimaza. He further discovered that zymase is a protein while the protein is not kozimaza (Compound nonprotein nature).
In 1905 G. made his second fundamental discovery: the fermentation process requires the presence of phosphate, consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms. He noted that the rate of decomposition of sugar molecules and the formation of carbon dioxide and alcohol eventually falls slowly. However, when it is added to a solution of phosphate, the activity increased sharply fermentation. Based on these observations, G. concluded that phosphate molecules bind to sugar molecules, creating the conditions for enzymatic induction of fermentation. Moreover, he discovered that phosphate is separated from the reaction products, as a result of a complex chain of transformations remains free.
G. Work on the role of phosphate in the fermentation process has contributed to the study of the phenomenon, which was later called the intermediate metabolism, the study of the compounds formed during chemical reactions in a living organism. In the fermentation process, many of these intermediates are similar to phosphorus, primarily entering the reaction and then regenerated until fully completed when the chemical process. Study G. fermentation of sugar (carbohydrate) provided a model follow experimenters studied the decay of carbohydrates of plants and human muscle tissue.
Understanding the importance and significance of this work led to the fact that, in 1906 he was invited to lead the biochemical faculty Listerovskogo Institute. After 5 years, he became an honorary professor of Biochemistry, University of London, as well as being the director of the Institute Listerovskogo. In 1913, he became, together with MV Baileys co-editor of "Biochemical Journal