Date of Birth: 07/25/1848
Place of birth: Whittingham
Citizenship: United Kingdom
Balfour, Arthur James (Balfour, Arthur James) (1848-1930), English statesman. Born July 25, 1848 in Uittingeme (Scotland). He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge University. In 1874 he became a member of the House of Commons from the Conservative Party. At the Berlin Congress in 1878 he served as Secretary with his uncle, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lord Salisbury. In 1886 he joined the government as Minister of State for Scotland, in 1887-1891 became the Minister of Ireland. In 1891 - the first Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Commons. In 1902 he succeeded Lord Salisbury as Prime Minister and head of the Conservative Party. To carry out reforms in the field of education and defense, he was one of the initiators of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902), which put an end to the policy of "splendid isolation"; He made the conclusion of an alliance with England, France - the basis of the anti-German coalition. Split the party in 1903 on the tariff and customs system reform in the spirit of protectionism has undermined the position of the government. At the end of 1905 Balfour retired; the parliamentary elections in December 1905, the Conservatives were defeated.
In 1910-1911 Balfour opposed home rule for Ireland and limiting the powers of the House of Lords, but was not successful. In November 1911 he was forced to leave the post of leader of the Conservative Party. During the First World War came in the coalition government, taking the post of Secretary of the Navy; in 1916-1919 was the Minister of Foreign Affairs, is actively vystupalprotiv pacifism, supporting Lloyd George formulated a policy of "crushing blow". In April 1917, a mission led by the United States, the purpose of which was to coordinate military operations in Europe. In November of the same year was published the Balfour Declaration of British policy in Palestine, it says that the British government "refers favorably to the establishment in Palestine of a national home (national home) for the Jewish people, and will spare no effort to facilitate the achievement of this goal." In 1920, Balfour represented Britain at the Assembly of the League of Nations, and in 1921-1922 - at the Washington Conference on the limitation of naval armaments and the Pacific and Far East issues. In 1922 he became a Knight of the Garter and given the title Earl Balfour. In 1926, he led the work on drawing up the so-called "Balfour report" - the conclusions of the imperial conference on the issue of self-government of the Dominions of Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the Irish Free State, which had been included in the text of the Statute of Westminster (1931).
Throughout his life, Balfour had a deep interest in philosophy and even wrote several works in this field. In 1921-1928 was president of the British Academy. Among his works - Protection philosophical doubts (Defence of Philosophic Doubt, 1879), Foundations of Faith (The Foundations of Belief, 1895), Theism and Humanism (Theism and Humanism, 1915). Balfour died in Woking (England) March 19, 1930.