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Artemij Voliunskij

Picture of Artemij Voliunskij

Citizenship: Russia

Background

His father, Peter Artemyevitch was under Tsar Fedor Alekseevich solicitor, then stolnik, a judge of the Moscow Order of Judgement, and commander in Kazan. Volinskiy read a lot, was a "master of writing," I had a considerable library. In 1704 he was enlisted soldier in the regiment of dragoons. In 1711, he was already a captain and won the favor of the king. Consisting at Shafirov during the Prut campaign, in 1712, he shared his captivity in Constantinople. In 1715, Peter sent Volhynia in Persia, "the character of the messenger." His mission had two objectives: a comprehensive study of Persia and the acquisition of trading privileges for Russian merchants. Both orders Volinskiy completed successfully (1718), and was promoted to Adjutant General (the latter was then only 6) and in 1719 he was appointed governor of the newly established province of Astrakhan. Here he soon managed to introduce some order in the administration, to improve relations with Kalmyks, raise the economic life of the region and made little preparations for the forthcoming Persian campaign. In 1722 Volyn married a cousin of Peter the Great, Alexander Lvovna Naryshkina. Taken in this year`s campaign in Persia ended unsuccessfully. Volyn enemies attributed this defeat to Peter if false information, delivered Volyn, and by the way pointed to his bribery. King brutally punished Volyn his baton and no longer trusted him to continue. In 1723 he was taken away "full can", provided only one administrative activities, and participation was completely eliminated in the war with Persia. Catherine I appointed governor of Volyn in Kazan, and chief of the Kalmyks. In the last days of the reign of Catherine I Volyn, in the intrigues, mostly Yaguzhinsky, he was dismissed from these posts. Under Peter II of, thanks to the convergence of Dolgoruky, Cherkassky et al., It once again failed to get the post of governor in Kazan, where he stayed until the end of 1730 his passion for wealth and unbridled temper in Kazan reached its peak, and caused the establishment of him from the government "inquisition". The retired from his post, he gets in November 1730 a new appointment in Persia, but soon determined, instead of Persia, the military inspector, under the command of Minich. Political views were expressed Volyn for the first time in the "Notes" prepared (1730) supporters of the autocracy, but amended by his hand. He did not sympathize with the plans of the supreme, but was an ardent defender of the interests of the nobility. Crouching before the omnipotent then foreigners - Munnich, Levenvoldom and by Biron, Volinskiy converges, however, and with their secret enemies, Eropkin, Khrushchov and Tatishchev leads discussions on the political situation of the Russian state and is making plans correction of internal public affairs. In 1733 Volyn was chief of the army detachment besieging Danzig; in 1736 he was appointed Chief Master of the Hunt, and in 1737 sent the second minister to the Congress in Nemyriv for the negotiation of peace with Turkey. In 1738 he was appointed cabinet minister. Through him, Biron expected to have a support against Osterman. Volyn quickly put in order the affairs of the office, expanded its membership to more frequent convening of the "general assembly", which invited the senators, presidents of boards and other dignitaries; subordinated control board cabinet military, Admiralty and foreign. In 1739, he was the only speaker at the Empress for Cabinet Affairs. Soon, however, his main opponent Osterman could cause against Volyn displeasure Empress. Although he succeeded, the device comic wedding of Prince Golitsyn with Kalmyk Buzheninova on time to regain the location of Anna Ivanovna, but brought to its attention by the case of beating Trediakovsky and rumors of buntovskih speeches Volyn finally decided his fate. Osterman and Byron presented their reports and the Empress demanded the trial of Volyn; Empress did not agree to it. Then Biron, insulted the shame of his actions and beating Trediakovsky (happening in his "chambers"), resorted to a last resort: "I either have or you" - he said Anna Ivanovna. In early April 1740 Volhynia was forbidden to appear at court; April 12, due to the Empress Reported cases in 1737 to 500 rubles of public money taken from the office of butler Konyushennaya Volyn, Basil Kuban, "on particularistic needs" of his master, followed by house arrest, and three days later proceeded to the investigation committee, composed of seven persons. Originally Volinskiy behaved bravely, willing to show confidence that the whole thing will end happily, but then lost heart and confessed to bribery and concealment of money seemed. Particular attention is paid to the Commission denunciations of Basil Kuban. Kubanets pointed to the speech of the Volyn "vain anger" Empress and the harm of the foreign government, its intention to change everything and take the life of Biron and Osterman. Interrogated, also denounced by the Kuban, "confidant" Volhynia largely confirmed these statements. An important material for the prosecution then served papers and books Volyn considered Ushakov and Neplyuev. Between his projects and considerations such as "Citizenship," "friendship of the human," "about to befall harm the person of the sovereign, and generally throughout the state," the most important were his "general project" an improvement in public administration, painted them on their own impulse, and the other, since the knowledge of the sovereign, the draft amended by the state of affairs. The Board of the Russian Empire should be, according to the Volyn, monarchical, with wide participation of the chief of the nobility as a class in the state. Another government department after the monarch should be the Senate, with the value of what he had under Peter the Great; followed by lower government representatives from the lower and middle nobility. Estates spiritual, urban and peasant received on the draft of Volyn, considerable privileges and rights. From all the required literacy, and from the clergy and nobility - a broad education that were to serve as breeding grounds for the Academy and the University. Many of the proposed measures to improve justice, finance, commerce, etc. Upon further questioning Volyn.. (From the 18th of April - in the secret office) called him a perjurer, attributing his intention to make a takeover of the state. Under torture, Khrushchev, and Eropkin Soimonov directly indicated a desire Volyn to take the throne after the death of Anna Ivanovna. But Volyn and under the blows of the whip in the dungeon rejected the accusation and tried his best to shield Elizabeth Petrovna, in whose name, as if he wanted to make a revolution. Not admitted in Volinskiy treasonable intentions and after the second torture. Then, at the Empress`s orders, continued The search was stopped, and 19 June appointed for the trial of Volyn and his "confidant" general assembly, which decided: 1) Volyn, Thou originator of all evil work, live impaled, by cutting his pre language; 2) his confidants - quartered and then cut off their heads; 3) estates confiscated and 4), two daughters and a son Volyn exile in eternal exile. June 23 this sentence was presented to the Empress, who ordered the head of the Volyn, Yeropkina and Khrushchev cut off and the rest of "confidants" for punishment to exile, which was done June 27, 1740 On his return from exile Volyn children erected a monument at the grave of his father, who was buried together with Khrushchev and Eropkin near the gate of the church fence Sampson temple (on the Vyborg side).