Andrey Vyshinskiy

Picture of Andrey Vyshinskiy

Date of Birth: 10/12/1883

Age: 70

Place of birth: Odessa

Citizenship: Ukraine


Father - F. Vyshinskii Januarius (January Wyszy & # 324; ski), a parishioner of the Catholic Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Baku, the owner of a pharmacy in the Kolyubakinskaya street. Baku, mother - music teacher. Shortly after his birth the family moved to Baku.

In 1901 he entered the law faculty of the Kiev University, but graduated only in 1913, as repeatedly drop out. In 1903, he joined the party of the Mensheviks. After graduation, he taught at a private school in Baku, practiced law. After the February Revolution of 1917, he became police commissioner Yakimanskaya district in Moscow. According to some reports, has signed an order for the arrest of Lenin, if found in Moscow, as a German spy. It joined the Bolsheviks only in 1920

In 1925-1928 gg. He was the rector of Moscow State University. If it worked in the departments of "verification commission" has been reduced the autonomy of academic units, intensified political and propaganda work among the students. As a result of the removal of the old university professors has decreased the level of teaching. In the late 1920s he worked in the government bodies related to education.

Prosecutor during the Shakhty case. Since 1935 the Attorney General of the USSR. He served as a state prosecutor on all three Moscow Trials 1936-38 years .; for it was typical of the hard style, liberty, the original self-guilt of the accused, which he openly expressed contempt. Wyszynski considered it his model of Roland Freisler, the chairman of "People`s Court" in Hitler`s Germany.

However, the widespread legend that Vyshinsky theorist argued after the medieval inquisitors that the confession of the accused is the queen of evidence, does not correspond to reality. In his seminal work, he declared the opposite principle:

... It would be wrong to give the accused or defendant, or rather, their explanations, more importance than they deserve it ... In a sufficiently already distant past, in the era of dominance in the theory of the so-called legal (formal) evidence revaluation values ??confessions of the defendant or the accused reached such an extent that the recognition of the accused guilty counts as immutable, not subject to doubt the truth, even if this recognition was torn from him torture is at that time almost the only procedural proof in any case regarded as the most serious evidence, "queen of evidence" (regina probationum).

... This principle is completely unacceptable to the Soviet law and jurisprudence. In fact, if other circumstances established in the case, prove the guilt of the person liable party, the consciousness of that person loses the value of the evidence and becomes superfluous in this regard. Its value in this case can be reduced only to the fact to be the basis for the evaluation of these or other moral qualities of the defendant, to reduce or enhance the punishment determined by the court.

This organization of the investigation, in which the accused are the main indications and - even worse - the only foundations of the entire investigation, can jeopardize the whole thing in case of change of the accused of his testimony or refuse them.

For most of the work - "Theory of forensic evidence" - received in 1947 Stalin Prize; Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1939).

Since 1940, the People`s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. In 1945 he was present at the surrender of Germany. In 1949 -1953, at the height of the initial phase of the Cold War and during the war in Korea, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. After Stalin`s death, the Minister of Foreign Affairs once again became Molotov and Vyshinsky was appointed Soviet representative to the UN.

He died in New York in 1954, was cremated, the ashes placed in an urn in the Kremlin wall on Red Square in Moscow.

After XX Congress of the CPSU in 1956, Vyshinsky was "posthumously repressed", his heirs took away public benefits, and his works are no longer officially used textbooks for lawyers.