Date of Birth: 07/18/1909
Place of birth: a. older Gromyki
Face "Mr. No"
Soviet diplomat, Soviet Ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Andrei Gromyko was well known not only in our country but also abroad.
AA Gromyko worked under six general secretaries of the CPSU exactly 50 years (1939-1989 gg.)! And while Western politicians and journalists called him "Mister No", nevertheless the London newspaper "The Times" in September 1981, wrote of him: "Perhaps Andrei Gromyko is the most informed foreign minister in the world." He was respected.
Unfortunately, he could not give a detailed interview, did not have time to talk about everything, which was a witness, I did not have time to share their thoughts. I do not have time or do not want to ... Because then, in 1989, censorship still existed. Maybe this publication, prepared by journalist Dmitry Tikhonov, at least partially fill the gap.
- Andrey, what is your strongest impression of his childhood?
- When I was a kid, I heard once from my grandmother unusual word. I do not remember what I was guilty, but she threatened me with your finger, and said:
- Oh, you`re a democrat! Why shalish?
It happened before the revolution, with the king, and she, who knew firsthand that "democrats" are imprisoned, exiled to hard labor, and I decided to scare these "terrible" word.
- You`ve met with almost all post-war US presidents. Which meeting was most memorable?
- Even in 1945, at a conference in San Francisco I met with John Kennedy. He enjoys the popularity of the reporter, he asked me to give him an interview.
Kennedy-journalist did not behave annoyingly, the questions posed in the form as it were, their own reasoning. Then he paused and his eyes rather ask, whether I have any comments on the issues raised? I like this style. Kennedy and kept it in the future.
- Andropov invited you to become not only the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, that is the head of the Soviet state. Why then do you refuse?
- Because he knew that Andropov very soon want to be a President of the Presidium. And not because of vanity, but because of the nature of the post of General Secretary of the CPSU. This is not a public office. The most important state affairs, especially international ones, sooner or later, would have required the signature of the first face of the Soviet Union.
- It is believed that you have put forward for the post of General Secretary Gorbachev. It deystvitelnotak?
- Yes, at the March (1985) Plenum of the Central Committee I on behalf of the Political Bureau made a proposal to elect the Central Committee of the CPSU General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and justified proposal. The plenum unanimously adopted a positive decision.
- Do you regret that Gorbachev helped get this position?
- No, I do not regret. I supported not only Gorbachev and a big change. We needed an active leader.
- Whether it will meet your expectations?
- Not for Senka cap was sovereign, not by Senka!
- "No sir," called you in Western newspapers. That`s because you`re so often in negotiations to use the word, and not compromised?
- My "no" they had heard much less often than I have them "know", because we put forward more proposals. I was in their newspapers nicknamed "Mr. No", because I did not allow myself to manipulate. Who wanted this, I wanted to manipulate the Soviet Union. We - a great power, and nobody do not allow!
- Now our top political leadership is proud to have refused the position of force in international relations ...
- There is nothing to be proud of. The world - is good, but not at any price and certainly not at the expense of their own people. If you are proud of their pacifism, not sit in a chair head of a great power. Be proud of at home, in the yard, in the field, but do not harm their state.
I never fawned Westerners. We also have figures that seem to be shyly through his teeth and protect their own interests. Oh, it would not hurt America! So we will not get very far.
- What was the secret of your authority and influence?
- I never envied anyone, did not take part in any intrigue, trying with all maintain good relations. Diplomacy - a delicate matter. How many times have I interfered with work! No exaggeration to say - a million times!
- For example?
- For example, Khrushchev completely out of place at the reception, all pobagrovev, shouted in the direction of foreign diplomats and journalists: "We will bury you!" It was difficult to understand what he meant. The NATO propaganda, of course, used this incident, fueling the myth of the Soviet military threat. Harm was a lot.
Serious diplomacy does not allow buffoonery. And Khrushchev behaved like a real clown.
- Today, many politicians behave like clowns. For some, it was the general norm of behavior. They probably think that their idiotic antics of people do not forget, they do not forget shoes Khrushchev ...
- Better to be forgotten than to pass for a fool.
- Calculate what your biggest personal success?
- Securing and inviolability of borders in Europe - this is the main result of my work on the post of foreign minister. I think that these borders remain. Of course, over the years, some changes may occur. If European countries abandon the Helsinki accords, will be broken, then begin on European soil territorial conflicts, will dissolve the old and the new coalition will be created. In Europe, the war will come again.
- You never said a total rejection of nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union. Why?
- If we are to ditch its nuclear weapons, the West on its own will not give up.
- But the arms race robs us of the huge resources that we could, as well as Japan, to invest in the right people do the production?
- Yes, the arms race took up a lot of energy. Still, we would not be able to force the Americans to conduct serious negotiations with us on Disarmament, if behind them. Then the United States would no longer be considered a contact.
- Enemies have you had?
- I`ve always had two enemies - the time and the ignorance of the people who have risen to the pinnacle of power status. Intrigue, denunciations, tripping each other at a part of the party leadership were held in high esteem.
- And who is in the Kremlin, in your opinion, was a special schemer, except Stalin, of course?
- Of those who had to work in the first place put Wyszynski. He killed a lot of people, but also his life has broken. He liked to push people`s foreheads Khrushchev. Brezhnev taste for intrigue had. Khrushchev was not a conspiracy, it has become a necessity, as Khrushchev lost control, began to collapse the economy of the country and the party. For example, suddenly, breaking the necessary procedures, transferred Crimea to Ukraine.
- Do you think that our troops can not withdraw from Eastern Europe. How do you explain this?
- Care of the center of Europe can not, it would be a strategic error of nature, this is our best line of defense, it should strengthen, rather than leaving. My actions came out of it. We agreed to only a symbolic reduction of forces in Central Europe. As long as there is NATO.
- So you told the West that the Soviet military presence in Europe will persist as long as there will be a NATO?
- And how could it be otherwise, we will leave, and war machine created to threaten us, will remain? Eastern Europe - the scope of our interests, rather than the United States and NATO.
- And why you were against the unification of Germany?
- There are questions that can be solved only by time. I did everything to the German Democratic Republic has not been absorbed by Germany. If the US and its allies in a serious come to our proposal for the dissolution of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, would have agreed to the neutralization of Germany, then there would be a basis for a discussion on the union.
- The UN has supported the bombing of Yugoslavia. It turns out that this international organization dedicated to saving the world, has outlived itself?
- UN bury yourself if you become a servant of any one social system or a military-political bloc.
- In his memoirs, you`ve told a lot of interesting facts from the international life, but for some reason did not affected domestic policy. Afraid to reveal state secrets?
- Do you like catchy words, sensations, and I can not put on public display what for many years was kept sealed with seven seals.
In general, I believe that the economic and especially financial strength of capitalism is superior to ours. American capitalism is enmeshed the globe. To counter this, we can only, even, perhaps, China, countries rich in raw materials and strong militarily.
- How you can make a prediction about our relationship with the United States?
- The changing balance of power in favor of the Americans allow them to make a lot of moves. Most likely, will require us to unilateral disarmament in exchange for aid mythical, which will never come.
Keep in mind that any gifts either before or now America we will not do. All our progress in relations with the United States, Western European countries will depend on us, the state of our economy, and hence the rate of its development.
- How do you feel about the changes taking place in Russia?
- Started the right thing, we have long needed reform. But the society of private ownership of the basic means of production should be created. on the basis of wild capitalism No modernization of our country do not succeed, the West long ago got rid of it. We may appear absurd society where people`s lives will be poisoned.
- Today it is assumed that the return to the past is gone. What do you think the "cult of personality" Can we come back?
- We still live in a Fuhrer, although it appeared to us in a new guise. With collegiality in the hands HANDBOOK fared poorly. Forgotten old lessons in fashion, new teachers, often from the West.
- What is your main life principle?
- Do not be discouraged. Physically, people die, but spiritually - never. You have to believe.