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Andrey Gaponov-grehov

Picture of Andrey Gaponov-grehov

Date of Birth: 07/06/1926

Age: 90

Place of birth: Moscow

Citizenship: Russia

Background

Born June 7, 1926 in Moscow. Father - Gaponov Viktor Ivanovich (1903-1990). Mother - Maria Grekhova Tikhonovna (1902-1995). Wife - Elena D. Smirnova (1923 born.). The daughter - Natalia (. 1962 born), a doctor. Son - Victor, a physicist, was killed in his youth. Grandchildren: Michael, a banker; Elena, a student-biologist; Andrei, student, interested in physics, but who will be, is difficult to say.

Head of the Nizhny Novgorod scientific school of radiophysics Andrey Viktorovich Gaponov-Grekhov very fate seems predetermined path in science. His parents met in 1919 at the Physics and Mathematics at Moscow University. In his later years, his mother Maria Tikhonovna recalled student youth: "I was lost for days and nights in the laboratory (slept on a mattress stuffed with wood shavings) studied at two universities, and after school put on." Cat "and climb on pillars to repair the electric light in the payment of often. gave some victuals. " Admission to the Moscow State University was then free, but it was difficult to learn. And physicists at the end of the 1st year, she said, only 15 people left. The founder of aerodynamics Zhukovsky read to students the mechanics of holding chalk frozen hand in glove with the fingers cut off. Those enthusiastic physicists for many years tied friendship - the future professors Mary sinful Victor Gaponova, future academicians Alexander Andronov, Mikhail Leontovich. And once on the road from the university, met the banner of "registrar", 20-year-old love Maria and Victor Grekhova Gaponov entered and signed in the absence of passports for union card. And when they had in 1926. The first child was born Andrew, he was given a double name on the document. His younger brother Sergei (he is also a physicist, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences), born 11 years later, has already become a Gaponov - parents, brothers, according to the memoirs, paid no attention to formalities. And lived Viktor Ivanovich and Maria Tikhonovna with 67 (!) Years. And in this pair around ever seen a sample of the spouses, companions. In an old photograph they tenderly looking at each other, and in his hand was a vacuum tube, like a flower.

"Maria Tikhonovna entered into physics - wrote one Gaponova-Grekhova Professor Miller, -. Through persistent to desperation, it is difficult organized experiment on wave transmission microwave at once record distance" She had to do to become a specialist and generators, and on antennas and on the track, and receivers - to cover the whole range of problems in general Due to this ability to see problems in the complex and having a persistent nature, it is the opinion of all who knew her, was an ideal physicist a manager that was it.. role in a group of Muscovites, the founding fathers of the Nizhny Novgorod school physics, science paratroopers landed here in the early 1930s:. professor Grekhova - organizer of science, Academician Andronov - theorist and ideologue, professor Gorelik - teacher of superlatives during the war Grekhova revived and led Research Institute of Physics and Technology at the Gorky University. with its persistent endeavors was opened Radio Physics Faculty of the University, where she became the first dean. The main fight of its organizational consider the establishment in the mid-1950s RRI - Research Radiophysics Institute, which she directed until the early 1970s. Subsequently, the RRI is divided, and the new Academic Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) led Andrew Gaponov-Sin, and years later spun off from the Institute of Applied Physics Institute of Microstructure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences - Sergey Gaponov. History of the Nizhny Novgorod school of physics, which is called one of the dynamically developing scientific schools of Russia, is closely related to two generations of scientists from this talented family.

Andrew Gaponov Sin-school years differed with energy and determination. Researchers gave him easily, he managed also to work as a mechanic after lessons in the experimental workshop of the Institute, and in summer 1942 tractor on the farm. As a father, I decided to test the dignity of different grades son gave him for the task of physics, which slips and students. But seventh-grader mastered it in 10 minutes. And parents did not hinder, when he decided in the spring to pass external examinations immediately after the 9 th and 10 th grades.

Having successfully passed the exams, Gaponov-Sin entered the Special Faculty of Industrial Institute. And when I was on the 2nd course in the university opened the Faculty of Radio Physics. On the 1st course was the usual method, and the 2nd and 3rd courses students passing the strong-techies with the loss rate for the delivery of university exams in mathematics and physics. But Andrew, as well as some of the other students, he decided not to lose a year. Exams transferred students were allowed to take as soon as available to them. Andrey V. believes that the experience of continuous examinations proved very useful during the year for him. In his youth, he says, we are spending power is very wasteful, and learn to focus only when you put in front of him on the verge of a possible problem. It seems to him that it was in that year he acquired skills concentrated individual work. A revival of serious interest in science conducive environment itself and on the faculty, and in their home. Friends of the parents were scientists. His father, a passionate bookworm, has collected an extensive library. There was also a physicist and lyrics. Guests gladly skimmed "Apollo", Journal of "Silver Age", rare collections of poetry.

And at the Radiophysics Faculty students study scientific elite. In addition to the founding fathers of the Nizhny Novgorod radiophysics read their future courses leading figures who came from Moscow VL Ginzburg, DA Frank-Kamenetskiy, EL Feinberg, SM Ritov. Students are closely communicated with active scientists, were included in the research. This related physicotechnical training system has taken since deep roots in Nizhny Novgorod. That`s when the teacher and the other was for Andrew Gaponova-Grekhova talented young physicist Michael Levin for many years. Moskvich, student and later son-Academician Leontovich, he was a man of many facets gifted and erudite. Memories of it left not only physics, but also a famous philologist academician Vyacheslav Ivanov, Yevgeny Pasternak, writer Valery Frid. The book, dedicated to him, is his study of Hamlet, published in England, and his sharp epigrams. The political prisoner, fortunately freed on amnesty victorious, he could not live in Moscow, and arranged in Gorky. The faculty at ease, without abstracts, he brilliantly read one of the main courses - the theory of the electromagnetic field. Michael L. was only 5 years older than their students, and with him easily and naturally could discuss and scientific and human problems. This friendship and close association continued for many years after the return of Michael L. to Moscow and played a big role in the life of Andrei Gaponova-Grekhova.

A graduate school in 1949, Andrew went to Academician Andronov, who invited him to the master`s thesis unexpected and difficult topic on the general theory of electromechanical systems. This question was at the hearing by physicists since the early twentieth century, but remained not fully clarified. In academic circles, there was a view shared by some of the major authorities, that electrodynamics should be limited to laws similar to those that operate in the mechanics, and can record equations of electrodynamics and mechanics in a single form - but to do so in a sufficiently general form, it was not possible ...

"It was a good to me the task - recalled Andrey, - and I was then able to understand it turned out that there are electromechanical systems that really can not be described by equations in the form commonly used in mechanics, Lagrange equations This system variable.. number of degrees of freedom, as well as electromechanical systems with sliding contacts, which, with a dynamic point of view, are nonholonomic dynamic systems. They can be described Chaplygin equation, but I was able to formulate the equations more compact and convenient than Chaplyginskaya ".

Gaponov defended his thesis-Sin is not in Gorky, and in Leningrad, at the Polytechnic Institute, and the obtained result is presented to young scientists so significant that the applicant and awarded the PhD, and immediately his doctorate. Unfortunately, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Andronov then, in 1955, 3 years as there were no survivors.

Years Gaponova-Grekhova teaching at the university and graduate school were difficult for the Nizhny Novgorod radiophysics. First developed the persecution of a prominent geneticist SS Chetverikova the biology department, and then became the target of accusations of ideological Professor Gorelik. He has written an excellent book "Oscillations and Waves", subsequently became a desktop for radiophysicists, but the university philosophers found it harmful preaching idealism. Gorelik left Grekhova went on the defensive. Andrey Viktorovich after graduate school became a teacher at the Polytechnic Institute. It was only after receiving the degree of Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, senior research fellow came in GIFT, when he was a professor at the Gorky Polytechnic Institute. And when in 1956 opened the RRI, Gaponov-Sin got there at the head of the department, who led for 20 years.

In the late 1950s, it begins extremely fruitful period of scientific work Gaponova-Grekhova. He himself distinguishes his two main directions. First, it is non-linear wave processes, and secondly, the problem of generation and amplification of high-power high-frequency electromagnetic waves with wavelengths in the millimeter and submillimeter range. These breakthrough areas have great potential for development.

Exploring the dynamics of waves in nonlinear media, the scientist together with his collaborators discovered and studied the phenomenon of electromagnetic shock waves. The practical output was the use of shock waves in a pulsed technique. This series of works, as well as some other works on the nonlinear interaction of the waves was one of the precursors of the future prosperity of the nonlinear dynamics of waves, which refers to the key fields of modern physics. While developing and justifying the strict asymptotic methods of nonlinear dynamics, Gaponov Sin-paved road, followed by work on the dynamic chaos and self-regulation in complex dynamic systems.

Among the most outstanding achievements of the scientist belongs to the theory of stimulated emission classical nonlinear oscillators based on this theory, the principle of generation and amplification of electromagnetic waves flow nonisochronic excited oscillators. And this principle has been realized in the creation of a new class of devices - masers at cyclotron resonance of free electrons (DNC), which had no equal in power output and efficiency of the millimeter and even submillimeter wavelengths.

Working devices (called gyrotrons and gyroklystron) based on the interaction of electromagnetic waves in oversized kvazioticheskih resonators or waveguides with the flow of free electrons, rotating in a constant magnetic field with the cyclotron frequency. Gyrotrons - and this is the name given to devices in the then Gorky - have become world famous. They are used as a source of powerful electromagnetic radiation - in the plasma heating installations - tokamaks and stellarators. A gyroklystron have been used in high-resolution radar that permits high-precision tracking of space objects. The results were evaluated by two State Prizes (1967, 1983).

"Gyrotrons feed us", - once joked Andrey Viktorovich. These works are underway. In 2003, the Institute of Applied Physics, managed to create a quasi-continuous power gyrotron almost megawatts. According Gaponova-Grekhova, installation Nizhny Novgorod, this gives physicists a good chance to compete in the future, an international tender for participation in the ITER - an international program to create an experimental fusion reactor. To launch such a reactor, heating plasma to hundreds of millions of degrees needed electromagnetic wave of very high frequency - more than a hundred gigahertz. And their total power from multiple sources must be about a hundred megawatts and maintained for a few minutes.

The academic community is still in the 1960s, praised scientific merits Gaponova-Grekhova. In 1964, when he was 38 years old, he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and after 4 years - academician.

In 1966 he became deputy director of the RRI for Research, and the separation of the Institute in late 1976, led by the newly established Academic Institute of Applied Physics.

Since its inception, IAP has become one of the largest institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the list of the International Science Foundation (ISF) it is among the top ten of the RAS institutes. The breadth of scientific interests of the Head is reflected in the breadth of the Institute topics: hydrophysics and underwater acoustics, plasma physics and high-power electronics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, radio physical methods in medicine.

"Abroad, - says Andrey, - to the radio physics is usually referred study of antennas and propagation A unifying different directions in the work of our institute is their genetic and functional relationship with the fundamental radiophysics as a general science of vibrations and waves -. To initiate fluctuations and waves of sewage, radiation, propagation, as well as the registration, reception and processing of vibration signals and wave - and the electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic nature. " This rod - Waves, regardless of their origin - combined, according Gaponova-Grekhova, a large circle of the phenomena of nature, "the wave kinship" which allows you to develop common approaches to them, common research culture.

A variety of work being conducted at the institute, can be illustrated at least for these two examples. Together with scientists of IAP Americans developed the program "ATOK" - acoustic study ocean temperature regime. Specially designed IAP source of low frequency (20 Hz) sound waves has been established in the region of Spitsbergen, and their reception was carried out by Americans in Alaska region. According to the changes the speed of sound track changes in ocean temperatures in its middle layers, such trails have been implemented and in the Pacific Ocean. This is a global problem - the control of climate change. A completely different perspective work related to medicine. The scientists used lasers or with a very short pulse, or with a very short coherence time. The principle on which they work, the basis for optical coherence tomography. The device allows you to look into the living body tissue, and to see the emergence of malignant changes at an earlier stage than before.

About 30 years ago Gaponov-Sin with students and staff began extensive research on the physics of ocean - gidroaktike, low-frequency sonar, wind-wave interaction with the deep processes in the ocean - in order to develop an underwater remote diagnostics. Academician AP Alexandrov interested in these studies, and attracted the IAP RAS and Andrey Viktorovich with the staff to the circle of scientists who gathered to solve the physical problems associated with the problems of nuclear submarine fleet. This association of eminent scientists, engineers and Navy coordinated by the Scientific Council on the complex problem "Hydrophysics" at the Presidium of the USSR. Eventually Gaponov-Sin became deputy Alexandrov, and then succeeded him as chairman of the council. The IAP was created whole department, successfully develops the principles and methods of long-range sonar and underwater detection of aerospace objects, as well as various questions of naval acoustics.

When Andrey Viktorovich was once asked, feeling if he himself a happy man, he said, "the feeling of satisfaction from the progress I`m familiar Happiness Happiness, I think, generally unattainable because it is not a permanent condition, and the transition from one.? situation to another something accomplished, and you`re already in trouble again:. to strive for something that is not solved. " With its active nature is incompatible state of contentment and peace.

And his energy in recent years, he directs the mainstream concerns about the preservation of science and its future. Even in 1991, the IAP RAS began with the formation of real integration, opening at the rights of the faculty of UNN "High School of General and Applied Physics" (VSHOPF). And in 2001 he began to operate with the blessing of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences Science Education Center (REC). It includes high school Physics and Mathematics Lyceum, VSHOPF and groups Radiophysics Faculty of UNN, the base of the department. The students are engaged in dozens of doctors and candidates of sciences, 3 academicians. school curriculum also prokorrektirovana scientists. Gaponov-Sin said that we will inevitably come to the unification of academic and university science, to unite science and education.

"Basic science in the country, - says scientist - is a source of ideas, technologies and personnel Why do we have made possible such powerful projects such as nuclear and space of the fundamental science are ideas based on technology and people, but if the fade scientific schools.?. was confused people, the restoration of science will take decades in the Russian science plays an important role is a unique phenomenon -.. scientific schools in their best combines individual creativity of individuals with a collective research work Alive academic school with their leaders -. main reserve for the development of strategic research directions. " That is why AV Gaponov-Sin became one of the initiators of the program of state support of leading scientific schools, headed by Council governing this program, as well as the presidential program of support for young PhDs.

In 2001, Academician Gaponov-Sin was awarded the highest award of the Russian Academy of Sciences - Great Gold Medal named after MV University, awarded annually to two outstanding scientists: one Russian and one foreign.

What you need to succeed in science? Andrey V. says: "Patience thoughts on the problem I suppose, until you get to the very core, will achieve full clarity This requires a long focus:.. Not just sit at the table, but you go, eat, hold your thoughts, you wake up with them and lie down, and can not be distracted. " This rare gift turned out to be inherent in a high degree.

AV Gaponov-Sin - the Hero of Socialist Labor (1986), winner of the State Prize of the USSR (1967, 1983), Demidov Prize (1995). He was awarded two Orders of Lenin, Order of October Revolution, "For Merit" III degree, Knight of the Great Gold Medal named after MV Lomonosov. Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, professor, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1964), academician of the USSR (1968), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Author of over 150 scientific publications. Chief editor of the journal "Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences.: Physics", a member of the "Plasma Physics" the editorial boards of journals "Proceedings of the universities. Radiophysics", "Acoustic Magazine". The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1989-91), was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the local councils.

He is fond of reading, a little - fishing, jogging, skiing.

He lives in Nizhny Novgorod.