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Andrey Bogolubskiy

Picture of Andrey Bogolubskiy

Age: 63

Place of birth: Rostov

Citizenship: Russia

Andrew Bogolyubskii. The struggle for "seniority"

Prince Andrew was the son of Yuri Dolgoruky and the daughter of the Polovtsian Khan Aepa. Second marriage Yuri was married to a Greek princess. Children from second marriage lived in Suzdal supervised tysyatskogo Varyag Simon. After the death of Yuri nobles and inhabitants of Rostov and Suzdal "sdumavshe" put on "otne table" Prince Andrew. Once in power, Andrew expelled from Suzdal younger brothers with the nobles of his father`s retinue.

In the XII century. Multiply the number of cities in Russia. But the total urban population was still small. Nevertheless, the role of citizens in the political life of the principalities was very high, thanks to the traditions of the veche. In the cities there Veche own hierarchy. Veche had a "senior" of the city, which served as the residence of the prince. "Younger" of the city, considered the suburbs, had to obey the decision of the older cities. The hierarchy has helped to preserve the unity of the state. vechem Manual carried nobles who owned estates and urban land in a rural district.

Prince Andrei Yurevich received power (1157-1174) from the hands of the boyars and Suzdal Candlelight older cities, but soon moved the residence of Vladimir. The young city of Vladimir, being a suburb of Rostov, did not have a Chamber and the local boyars were not so numerous and influential. In older cities, artisans mostly worked in the Boyarsky Dvor and boyars were slaves. In Vladimir, Prince Andrew has carried out grandiose building projects, which collected many masons and craftsmen from various lands and cities. After the death of Andrew Power "oldest" cities threatened to burn and send Vladimir posadniks in its "suburb" because Vladimirec - "the essence of serf kamennitsy" (masons).

Going to the north of Kiev land, Andrew took with him one of Kiev`s shrines - the icon of the Mother of God, who was in Vyshgorod. How to chronicle the story, horses, wagon Driven icon, stopped on the road in the vicinity of Vladimir, and no power on earth could not move them. Duke had to spend the night in the field. In the dream, Andrew was the Mother of God, who commanded a church on the site of the vision and carry the icon to Vladimir. Prince built together with the church of the palace. His new residence was called Bogolyubovo, and the prince - nicknamed Bogolyubskii.

Andrew Bogolyubskii wanted his capital city of Vladimir is not inferior to Kiev. He put a new fort, built the Golden Gate to the Church on the model of Kiev, majestic stone churches. In Vladimir has appeared Church of the Tithes. Having built the temple of the Assumption of the Virgin, tells chronicler, Prince Andrew bestowed temple "tithe into stadeh their bargaining and ten" (tenth part in trading income). Virgin Church was entrusted to the care of pet Prince Fedor, the spiritual rank of which is not known. After the board with the boyars Andrew letter sent to Constantinople with a request to establish a special metropolitan Vladimir and appoint the first Metropolitan of Vladimir Fedor. Rostov bishop objected Prince, was expelled from Suzdal to Constantinople "to fix."

Over the two centuries that have passed since the baptism of Rus, the Kiev department replaced 18 metropolitans, of which 16 were the Byzantines. Two Russian Metropolitan Hilarion and Clement, chosen and put to Russia without the knowledge of the patriarch, was deposed and replaced by Greeks. Please Bogolyubsky on the establishment of the Archdiocese of Vladimir and staged Fyodor was rejected by Constantinople and Kiev.

Interests of Defense of Russia from the nomads retreated into the eyes of Vladimir-Suzdal princes to new areas of foreign policy. Since Yuri Dolgoruky, the princes constantly made campaigns against the Volga Bulgars. After the fall of the Khazars on the Volga Bulgar kingdom gained independence and entered into a period of prosperity. North Russia gave the Volga trade route is the same meaning as Kievan Rus gave Dnieper.

The quarrel between the grandchildren of Mstislav the Great has given rise Andrey intervene in southern Russia. In 1168 Mstislav Izyaslavichiz Vladimir Volyn Kiev took and planted in Novgorod his son. He claimed the "seniority" among the princes. But he resisted the harassment immediately cousins ??Rostislavichi from Smolensk. To help Rostislavich Andrew Bogolyubskii sent his son with the troops. Allies called Polovtsy and in 1169 took a "spear" (attack) Kiev. Two days Suzdal, Smolensk Polovtsy and looted and burned, "the mother of Russian cities." Many people of Kiev were taken prisoner. In monasteries and churches of the soldiers took away not only jewelry, but also all the sanctity of: icons, crosses, bells and vestments. Polovtsi torched Caves Monastery. "Metropolitan," Sophia Cathedral was sacked along with other temples.

In the eyes of Prince Andrew "seniority" is no longer associated with it was indispensable possession of the throne of Kiev. Vladimir Duke contented himself planted to reign in Kiev Prince Gleb, his younger brother, and then handed the Kiev throne Smolensk Rostislavich to recognize the "seniority" of the northern Prince.

After defeating Mstislav II of Kiev, he decided to expel from Novgorod to his son. Among winter Suzdal army came to Novgorod and one day tried unsuccessfully to take the fortress by storm, after which suffered losses hastily retreated. In the hands of the winners got so many prisoners that "prodavahu Suzdal two Nogat" Novgorod. Despite the victory, we made peace with Novgorod, Andrei "throughout his will" and soon the prince took out of his hands.

Prince Andrew disposed Kievan princes like his podruchnik, which caused a sharp protest Rostislav. Then Andrew sent to Kiev swordsman Mikhno arrogant message. He ordered to get out of the Kievan prince in Smolensk, and his two brothers did not tell "be alone in the Russian land." Do not endure insults, the youngest of Rostislav, Mstislav Brave passed to Prince Andrew that Rostislavichi first held him as a father "for love", but will not allow them to treat them as "podruchnik". The war does not benefit any sulivshaya boyars nidruzhine. Governors were ordered to seize Mstislav entrenched in Vyshgorod. To help Mstislav troops arrived from Vladimir-Volyn. Army Bogolyubsky suffered a complete defeat. South Russian chronicler ironically remarks that came Suzdaltsev "vysokomyslyasche and humility otidosha in its houses." The war has brought great distress Suzdal.

Andrei tried to assert his authority over Russia following the example of his grandfather, Vladimir Monomakh. But he did not have the wherewithal to military talent and authority. In the context of the growing fragmentation of the efforts of Prince Vladimir was doomed to failure. For all its external power of the prince could not reliably protect even the favorite advisers. Bishop Theodore, aspired to the rank of Metropolitan, was summoned to Kiev and there executed.

Contemporaries called Bogolyubsky "samovlasttsem". Despotism and ambition Prince antagonized him, even his closest associates. The stone castle Andrei Bogolyubov felt completely safe. But it was here in 1174 there was a conspiracy to destroy him. The conspiracy involved lord Peter, "a bunch of in-law," Boyar sons of Kuchka Yakima, housekeeper Anba Yasin (Ossetians) and two dozen others. According to some reports, the reason for the performance served as a penalty Andrei brother sons of Kuchka Yakima. This information appears to relate to the field of legends. Novgorod Chronicle testified that the prince was not killed disgraced boyars, and those who enjoyed his favors ( "their milostnitsy"). Impact at the Vladimir boyars sons of Kuchka yard was exceptional. From the South of Russia Vladimir Andrei she left "command without despair, and his sons of Kuchka poddyasha flattery." In the Novgorod Chronicle, the conspirators killed the guard of the palace, and broke into the bedroom. Prince grabbed the sword, but it was raised to the spear. After that, the boyars hurried to the exit. Wounded Andrey found the strength to get to the entrance hall. Sons of Kuchka heard his groans, they came back and finished off Duke.

Source: RG Skrynnikov Russian History. IX-XVII centuries. (Www.lants.tellur.ru)