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Anaxagoras

Picture of Anaxagoras

Date of Birth: 0500

Age: 72

Nationality: Greece

Background

Developed questions in mathematics and astronomy. About thirty years he lived in Athens and was the actual founder of the Athenian school of philosophy. At the end of 430`s. He was accused of impiety and emigrated; the last years of his life (from 434-433 BC) held in Lampsacus. From the works of A. reached us 20 fragments.

A. The views were formed under the influence of the Milesian school (primarily - Anaximenes) and the doctrine of being of Parmenides. His teaching A. formulated a cosmogonic hypothesis that the initial state of the world is a fixed shapeless mixture composed of countless tiny particles senses do not perceive all kinds of substances. At some point in time, and in some region of space, this mixture has acquired a fast rotational movement, reported to it by some external to her agent - mind (nous). Space vortex, gradually slowing down, in a gyre dalneyshemvosprinimaetsya firmament. Under the influence of the speed of rotation separates the dark, cold and humid air is collected in the middle of the vortex of light, hot and dry ether, rushing to the periphery. Propel the particles tend to connect with their peers, to form a more or less homogeneous mass of matter. However, complete separation of the masses can not happen, because "in all there is a part of all," each thing as it seems that prevails in it. During this transformation the total number of any kind of substance remains unchanged. These principles are not only supposed to particles qualitatively similar substances (received in the Peripatetic school homoeomeries name), but also to the opposite of warm and cold, light and dark, dry and wet.

A. was the first scientist who gave the correct explanation of solar and lunar eclipses, and the first to set out the clear teaching about the phases of the moon. He was interested in natural astrology, ie cyclical natural phenomena coupled with the rhythmic movement of the heavenly bodies. Anticipating modern science for more than 2000 years, A. taught that the stars are made of the same material as that of our Earth, and the Sun has a mass of burning; Moon - dark uninhabitable body, receiving its light from the sun; and comets - wandering stars or bodies.

The ancient writer the III. Diogenes Laertius reports that A. predicted the fall of a stone from the sky. About it told me that one day he came to Olympia, he sat down at the stadium in a leather coat, as if was going to rain - which is what happened. According to Philostratus, A. predicted that a house will collapse, and no mistake. When asked why he was born into the world, Alexander replied: "For the contemplation of the sun, the moon and the sky."

In the name of A. named a crater near the north pole of the Moon and the minor planet number 4180.