Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca
Date of Birth: 1488
Place of birth: Jerez de la Frontera
Conquistador and anthropologist
Cabeza de Vaca was born in 1488 or 1490 in a family of modest means gentleman in the city of Jerez de la Frontera (Jerez de la Frontera), which is required to name the famous fortified wine. Approximately in 1512 he enlisted in the army of the Holy League, the Catholic Union, formed in the struggle for the throne of France a number of countries, including Spain (Spain), and participated in several military campaigns. Cabeza de Vaca fought bravely at the Battle of Ravenna (Ravenna), shortly thereafter, he was appointed military commander of the Italian city of Gaeta (Gaeta), and later participated in military conflicts in Spain, lost his father and mother in the revolt of the comuneros in 1520. In the same , he swore allegiance to the Duke of Medina Sidonia (Medina Sidonia).
At the beginning of 1527 Cabeza de Vaca left Spain, being treasurer and one of the leaders in the Spanish royal de Narvaez expedition, whose purpose was the colonization of the land, which the Spanish called `La Florida` - to put it simply, the modern Florida (Florida). They landed on the coast of Florida April 15, 1528, but by the beginning of next year due to hunger, disease, hostile Indians and the collapse of self-made boats as a result of the hurricane of 600 people remained alive only four, including Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca .
During the eight years of traveling on the south-western part of modern America (America), he was a slave trader and a shaman in several Indian tribes, before in 1536 reunited with the Spanish colonial forces in Mexico (Mexico). He walked through the territory of Texas (Texas), New Mexico (New Mexico), Arizona (Arizona), California (California) and a part of modern Mexico. Back in 1537 in Spain, he wrote `La Relacion` (bukv. `` Report), an account of his stay in the New World, first published in 1542. The report was published later, but under the name `Naufragios` (` Korablekrusheniya`). Modern science says Cabeza de Vaca was among the first in the history of anthropology, as in his memoirs, he describes in detail those tribes of American Indians, with whom he had to face.
In 1540 Cabeza de Vaca returned to the Western Hemisphere as an admiral, the governor of the conquistador-appointed king of Spain. He was to go to New Andalusia (New Andalusia), governor of South America (South America) in what is now Argentina (Argentina), to recover the settlement known today as Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires). Alas, there is his fate has developed unsuccessfully - at Cabeza de Vaca had a conflict with Domingo Martinez de Irala (Domingo Martinez de Irala), elected captain-general of Nueva Andalucia, in whose hands the real power was concentrated. In 1544 de Irala soldiers arrested Cabeza de Vaca (the reason for this, according to de Irala, it was bad management), and the following year he was taken to Spain for trial. Although ultimately Cabeza de Vaca was acquitted in the New World, he never returned. He wrote an extensive report on their observations, made in America, and is very critical of him about the activities of de Irala. The report published under the title `Comentarios` (` Kommentarii`). He died in poverty in Seville (Seville), approximately in 1557 or 1558.
Modern historians believe that the reason for the fall of Cabeza de Vaca was it unusual for Europeans of the time the goodwill in relation to the Indian tribes and the resistance of the Spanish elite who want to use the local population as slaves.
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca during his travels became the first European who saw waterfalls of Iguacu (Iguacu Falls) and buffalo, as well as examined the flow of the river Paraguay (Paraguay River). In 1991 came the Mexican movie `Cabeza de Vaca`, where Glan role played by Spanish actor Juan Diego (Juan Diego).