Date of Birth: 12/26/1912
Place of birth: Yevpatoriya
Alexander Davydov, who was born in Yalta, in a working class family. After graduating from high school in 1930, he moved to Moscow and worked at the car polisher, then learns from rabfak. In 1933, Alexander Davydov take the Physics Department of Moscow State University. Five years later, receiving a diploma, he enrolled in graduate studies under the prominent Soviet theoretical physicist IE Tamm and later rightfully become one of the most prominent representatives of Tamm school.
World War II interrupted his scientific work successfully begun A.S.Davydova. PhD thesis on the theory of beta decay and internal conversion it protects only in 1943, several years after it was completed, and still later, when recovered scientific relationship with the United States, recognizes that bred them in the thesis relativistic equations for particles with spin 3/2 were obtained in the Schwinger.
Since 1945, AS Davydov works in Kiev in the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, where he first formulated the basic tenets of the theory of molecular excitons and, in particular, predicts the splitting of degenerate molecular terms in crystals containing a few molecules per unit cell. This effect was eventually called "Davydov splitting." During the work of the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of USSR AS Davydov constructed a theory of absorption, luminescence, scattering and dispersion of light in molecular crystals, to stimulate a large number of theoretical and experimental studies in the USSR and abroad. Davydov theory guides experimenters in their research and serves as a basis for the interpretation of numerous works on the spectroscopy of molecular crystals islozhnyh molecules. It is widely used in the study of the energy structure of solids used in quantum chemistry and biophysics in order to study the migration of energy. In 1966, for his work on molecular excitons A. Davydov awarded the Lenin Prize.
In the years 1958-1964 Davydov Head of the Department of quantum mechanics at the Moscow University. During this period, he turned to the study of the structure of atomic nuclei, and together with his colleagues developed the theory of collective excitations, became famous in world literature as the theory of coaxial cores. Then he developed a method of accounting (without the use of perturbation theory) between the rotation of the nucleus and its fluctuations in the surface and develops the idea of ??the deformability of the nucleus in the transition to an excited state. Later, AS Davydov constructed a theory of electromagnetic transitions in atomic nuclei taking into account the longitudinal and transverse deformability of the surface.
In 1964, he returned to Kiev, AS Davydov headed the theoretical division of the Institute of Physics and the Department of the theory of many systems of the Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. He continues his work on nuclear theory and the theory of solids. In 1966 he published a monograph "Excited states of atomic nuclei", and in 1968 - "The theory of molecular excitons". In 1969, for his work on nuclear theory AS Davydov awarded the USSR State Prize.
Awards and Titles
Hero of Socialist Labor (1982)
Order of Lenin (1971, 1982)
Medal "For Labour Valour" (1961)
Lenin Prize (1966)
The USSR State Prize (1969)
Honored Worker of Science of the USSR (1972).