Alexander Von Humboldt
Date of Birth: 09/14/1769
Place of birth: Berlin
Humboldt, Alexander (Humboldt, Alexander) (1769-1859), German naturalist and geographer. Born September 14, 1769 in Berlin. In 1787 he entered the University in Frankfurt an der Oder, intending to become a government official, but soon became interested in the natural sciences. In 1789-1790 he took a trip through the valley of the Rhine and France. In 1790-1791 he studied at the Humboldt Hamburg Trade Academy, then in Freiburg Mining Academy, where in 1792 received a degree in mining engineering. In 1792-1795 he served in the Office of the mountain, at the same time engaged in botany, mineralogy, chemistry. In 1799-1804 he traveled to Central and South America. In 1807-1834 came the work of Humboldt Travel in equinoctial region of the New World in 1799-1804 (Voyage aux rgions quinoxiales du Nouveau continent), and in 1808 - Pictures of nature, equipped with scientific comments (Ansichten der Natur, mit wissenschaftlichen Erluterungen; Russian translation in 1959. ), which were first formulated the idea of ??a close connection between climate and vegetation.
In 1827 Humboldt lectured at the University of Berlin. In 1829 he traveled to Russia - the Urals, Altai, the Caspian and Caspian Sea areas. The result of the expedition was the three-volume work, Central Asia (Asie Centrale, 1843). In 1845 he published a work Space: plan description of the physical world (Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung).
Humboldt`s research interests were extremely varied. His main task he considered "comprehension of nature as a whole and to collect evidence about the interaction of natural forces." On the basis of common principles and using the comparative method, he created such disciplines as physical geography, landscape studies, plant geography. Pay more attention to climate research, has developed a method of isotherms, he drew a map of their distribution, and in fact gave the rationale of climatology as a science. Describe in detail the continental and coastal climate, has established the nature of their differences. Shared with Zh.Gey-Lussac work on gases has made a significant contribution to the development of ideas about atoms and molecules. Through research Humboldt scientific foundations were laid by the geomagnetism.
Humboldt died in Berlin on May 6, 1859.