Date of Birth: 08/21/1895
Place of birth: St. Petersburg
. Vinogradov, Alexander Pavlovich (born 9 (21) .8.1895, Petersburg; died 16 November 1975 in Moscow (buried at Novodevichy Cemetery) - Soviet geochemist and biogeochemist, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1943), academician of the USSR ( 1953), Chairman of the Section of Earth Sciences of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1967-1975), Vice-President of the USSR (1967-1975), Hero of Socialist Labor (1949).
He graduated from the Military Medical Academy and the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Leningrad in 1924. The student and close associate of VI Vernadsky. Director of the Laboratory of Geochemical Problems. Vernadsky USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1945.), Director of the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry. Vernadsky USSR Academy of Sciences from 1947.
Teacher Exchange geochemistry Geological Faculty of Moscow State University (1944-1953), taught courses, "General Geochemistry" and "Geochemistry of the individual elements," in 1954. approved at the rank of professor. In 1953. He is warping and headed the Department of Geochemistry, Geological Faculty of Moscow State University, Head of the Department of Geochemistry from 1953 to 1975.
Vinogradov`s studies have a wide range - from biogeochemistry to space chemistry. Studied changes in the chemical composition of organisms in relation to their evolution, especially in the body of trace elements (micronutrients); He introduced into science the notion of "biogeochemical province" and described the associated biogeochemical endemic plants and animals; developed biogeochemical methods of mineral exploration. Based isotope studies showed that the photosynthetic oxygen is formed from water, rather than carbon dioxide. In the field of geochemistry carried out the idea of ??establishing physical and chemical theory of geological processes. He studied the geochemistry of a number of elements, such as trace elements in the soil, and the composition of the rocks of the East European (Russian) platform; determined the average composition of the Earth`s major breeds.
Vinogradov proposed the hypothesis of a universal mechanism for the formation of planets shells on the basis of zone melting silicate phase and developed the idea of ??the chemical evolution of the Earth. A new trend in the science of the USSR - isotope geochemistry | geochemistry isotope - fractionation processes of natural isotopes of light elements O, S, C, K and Rb, and C14; contributed to the study of the ocean geochemistry. Together with his colleagues made to determine the absolute age of the Earth, shields - Baltic, Ukrainian, Aldan, and others, as well as Indian breeds, Africa and other regions..
Vinogradov conducted radiochemical studies and was directly involved in the creation of the nuclear industry. Studied composition of meteorites (various forms of carbon, and other gases.). Developed problem planets chemistry; from data obtained with the help of interplanetary space stations, established the presence of basaltic rocks on the lunar surface and determined the composition of the atmosphere of Venus. Under his leadership, it was used to study the lunar soil samples brought apparatus "Luna-16" from the surface of the Sea of ??Plenty. Arranged at the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry. Vernadsky USSR Academy of Sciences conduct fine chemical research. It is possible to solve the problem of "purity" of many modern materials and thereby contribute to technological progress.
Vinogradov - chief editor of the Atlas of lithologic-paleogeographic maps of the Russian Platform (1960-1961gg.), 4-volume Atlas of lithologic-paleogeographic maps of the USSR (1967-68gg.) And a series of books on analytical chemistry of individual elements.
He was a member of the International Pugwash Conference of scientists - the defenders of the world (s1958g.); a member of several foreign academies of science; honorary member of the American and the French geological societies; Honorary President of the International Association of Geochemistry and space chemistry. The deputy of the Supreme Council of the 3rd convocation. The winner of the Prize. Lenin (1934), three State Prizes of the USSR and the Lenin Prize. He was awarded five Orders of Lenin.
Main areas of research
Geochemistry of living matter (1932)
The chemical elemental composition of sea organisms. (Ch 1, 1935; h 2, 1937; h. 3, 1944).
Geochemistry of rare and trace chemical elements in soils (1950)
An introduction to the geochemistry of the ocean (1967)
Areas of research in Earth sciences (1970)
Article V. Shcherbina in TSB. Internet publication
ALL ABOUT MOSCOW UNIVERSITY. Academics State University
Solovyov YY, Bessudnova ZA, Przhedetskaya LT Domestic real and honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences XVII-XX centuries. Geology and mining sciences. M .: Scientific World 2000
Alexander Pavlovich Vinogradov. Materials scientists biobibliography USSR. Series of Chemical Sciences. M., 1965. Vol. 35