Alexander Graham Bell
Date of Birth: 03/03/1847
Place of birth: Edinburgh
Citizenship: United States
Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, March 3, 1847, in the family of philologists. His father, Melville Bell, invented a system of "Visible Speech" in which speech sounds are designated by written characters; Using this system, people could correctly pronounce the words, even in an unfamiliar language.
Alexander grew up in an atmosphere of music and recitation, where the sounds of the human voice has been given special attention. At age 14 he moved to London to his grandfather, under whose guidance he studied literature and oratory. And in three years he has already started an independent life, teaching music and elocution at the Academy Weston House. Thoroughly studying for nine years acoustics and physics of human speech, Bell became assistant to his father, a professor of the University of London.
In the spring of 1870 Bell was ill and the doctors advised him to change the climate. The family moved to Canada, and in 1871 he lived in the Boston North America, teaching in the school for the deaf with Visible Speech system.
At that time, the company "Western Union" was looking for a way to simultaneous transmission of several telegrams on one pair of wires to get rid of the need to run additional telegraph lines. The company announced a large cash prize to the inventor, which will offer a similar method.
Bell began working on this problem, using their knowledge of the laws of acoustics. He planned to install on that item several tuning forks, each of which would create a total line current, pulsing with a strictly defined frequency. At the receiving point, these ripples were also to be seen tuning forks tuned to the appropriate frequency. Since Bell was going to pass at the same time, seven telegrams, according to the number of musical notes - a tribute to a favorite childhood music.
The work on the "musical telegraph" Bella helped the young Bostonian Thomas Watson (Watson).
Horizon Bell was unusually wide, chtopriznavalos his contemporaries; broad education combined it with the liveliness of the imagination, and it allowed him to easily connect to their experiments so different spheres of science and art - acoustics, music, electronics and mechanics.
As yet Bell was not an electrician, he consulted another famous Bostonian, scientist D. Henry, whose name is called the unit of inductance. After seeing the first sample of the telegraph in the Bell Laboratory, Henry said: "By no means do not throw started!"
Not leaving work on a "musical telegraph" Bell at the same time began to build a device by which expected to make speech sounds are visible to the deaf at once and directly, without the written notation. For this, he worked for almost a year in Massachusetts ENT hospital, placing different experiments to study human hearing. The main part of the unit was to be the membrane; mounted on the last needle is recorded on the surface of a rotating drum curves corresponding to different sounds, syllables and words. Reflecting on the action of the diaphragm, Bell came to the idea of ??another device, by which, as he wrote, "will be possible to transmit different sounds, if you can only call the electric current intensity oscillations corresponding to the fluctuations in the density of the air, which produces this sound." This is a non-existent machine Bell gave a sonorous name "phone". So work on particular tasks help deaf led to thoughts about the possibility of creating a device that turned out to be necessary to the whole of humanity and undoubtedly influenced the further course of its development.
While working on "musical telegraph," Bell and Watson worked in various rooms where the transmitting and receiving devices have been installed. Tuning forks were steel plates of different lengths which have been fixed at one end and drugimzamykavshie circuit.
Once Watson had to release the end of the plate, which is stuck in the gap and contact with the other touched the plate. Those, of course, rattled. Jams plate acted as a primitive diaphragm. In all previous experiments, Bell and Watson free end of a make and break an electrical circuit. Now the sound of the plate vibrations induced electromagnetic oscillations in the magnet, which is located next to the plate. That is the difference between your phone and all other pre-existing telegraph devices.
For the action of the phone requires a continuous electrical current, the strength of which would be changed in strict accordance with the vibrations of sound waves in the air.
The invention had the phone on the heyday of the electric telegraph and was completely unexpected.
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his device at the Philadelphia World`s Fair. Within the walls of the exhibition hall for the first time sounded the word phone - introduced himself as the inventor of a "speaking telegraph". To the amazement of the jury of the horn he heard this thing monologue Prince of Denmark "To be or not to be?", Performed at the same time, but in a different room, the inventor, Mr. Bell.
Bell`s invention became a sensation the Philadelphia exhibition. And this despite the fact that the first telephone was working with the monstrous distortion of sound, talk with it could not further 250 meters, because he acted even without battery power alone, electromagnetic induction, its receiving and transmitting devices were equally primitive.
By organizing the "Bell Telephone Company", the inventor started the hard work to improve his creation, and a year later patented a new membrane and fittings for your phone. Then applied to increase the transmission distance of a carbon microphone of Hughes and powered by batteries. As such, the phone lasted well over a hundred years.
June 11, 1877 Alexander Graham Bell and Mabel Hubbard were married in the house of the bride`s parents, and the young couple sailed to England.
This trip has played a huge role in the history of the phone. In England, Bell successfully continued demonstrations, collecting a large number of audience. Finally, "a delightful representation of telephone" was given to the Queen and the royal family. Noble sang, recited, and talking with each other by wire, interrupting himself with questions about whether they are well heard. The queen was satisfied.
Newspapers on the phone so rastrezvonili success in England that the "Western Union" had to change their attitude to the invention. President of Orton reasoned that if the electric telephone invented some kind of teacher for the deaf, the professionals such as Edison and Gray will be able to create a better machine. And at the beginning of 1879 the company "Western Union" company created a "Spiking American Telephone Company," which has started to manufacture phones, ignoring the patent right Bella.
Supporters Bella, taking loans, created in response to "New England Telephone Company," and rushed into the fight. The result of the fight, however, was the establishment in late 1879 combined "Bell Company." In December of the same year, the share price has risen to $ 995. Alexander Graham Bell became extremely wealthy man.
Wealth accompanied by glory and worldwide renown. France awarded him the prize established by Napoleon Volta, the size of 50 thousand francs (up to Bella, this award has been given only once), and produced in the Knights of the Order of the Legion of Honor. In 1885 he became an American citizen.
A rainy morning of August 4, 1922 in the US and Canada for a moment all the phones were turned off. America buried by Alexander Graham Bell. 13 million handsets thousands of various types and designs silent in honor of the great inventor.