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Alexander Golitsin

Picture of Alexander Golitsin

Citizenship: Russia

Background

It belongs to an old family, in the pedigree of Prince Golitsyn Alexander Golitsyn was listed 48th in the VIII knee descendants of Prince Guo & # 769; Litsa. He was the son of the commander-deserved time of Peter I. According to the tradition of noble families of the young prince in his childhood was recorded in the Guard. In the thirteenth year of his life he lost his father. Golitsyn at the time were in favor with the Empress Anna Ivanovna, and Alexander could not count on the high patronage. In 17 years Golitsyn went abroad, in Austria, where he shone Generalissimo Eugene of Savoy. Will the fate of the son of Russian Field Marshal entered the military career in the Austrian Army.

Upon his return to Russia in 1740 Captain Golitsyn Guard was sent to Constantinople in the retinue of the ambassador A.Rumyantseva, he soon received a new assignment - Minister Plenipotentiary of Saxony. The daughter of Peter I, Elizabeth came to the throne at the end of 1741, returned to the genus Golitsyn royal location. When it Alexander successfully moved up the steps of the military-diplomatic career already in 1744 he reached the rank of lieutenant-general.

Prince made in 1757 appointment to the army, fought on the fields of the Seven Years` War against Prussia. In 1758 Golitsyn honors take a Thorn, and in the famous battle of Kunersdorf he commanded the left wing of the Russian army.

In this battle-chief PS Saltykov adopted a battle plan based on deliberate attacks towards the troops of Frederick II against the Russian left flank, in order to subsequently attack the enemy from the center and the right touchline. Golitsyn, is engaged with five shelves observational body height Muhlberg, had a hard time. His shelves were forced to accept a massive attack of three columns of the Prussians. Stojko defensively, Golitsyn`s troops eventually did not survive the onslaught of the Prussian infantry and cavalry and retreated, Alexander himself was wounded. Subsequently, military historians will find here the analogy with the actions of the left flank of the Russian army in the battle of Borodino troops P. Bagration, who were the main target of enemy attacks and, departing, he was not allowed to build on the success (Bagration himself was mortally wounded).

In the battle of kunersdorf Russian Army Chief of the plan he was quite successful: Frederick II lost the battle. During martial affairs Golitsyn received from Elizabeth award - the Order of Alexander Nevsky and the rank of General-in-Chief. At the end of the war with Prussia, he was appointed as chief of Russian forces in Livonia.

At his accession to the throne of Catherine II (1762) Golitsyn was awarded the Order of St. Andrew and the title of the Adjutant General. Becoming a member of the Council, established at the Imperial Court, he used the influence of the Empress, tsenivshuyu its diplomatic and military knowledge.

Since the beginning of Russian-Turkish war of 1768-74, Alexander Mikhailovich was entrusted with command of the 1st Army, from which he moved to Khotin. Breaking 40000th Corps enemy Golitsyn did not dare, however, to storm Khotina and stepped back to replenish their shelves and to strengthen the rear. In July 1769 he again moved to Khotin and proceeded to lay siege to the fortress. Arrival of fresh Turkish and Tatar troops to the aid of the besieged could entail large Russian losses in the assault, and the Commander, valuing the life entrusted to him by the soldiers, decided to lift the siege and again led the army of the Dnieper; at the same time he wanted to lure the enemy into a position convenient for battle.

At this time decided to send Ekaterina Golitsyn replaced the General-in-Chief Rumyantsev, hoping that he would act more decisively. But before the arrival of the new commander of Alexander`s plan to battle the Turks at their own justified circumstances. August 29, Turkish troops under the command of the Supreme Vizier Moldavanchi attacked the Russian army and were defeated; Turks lost 7 thousand. man, 70 guns and baggage.

Army Golitsyn, without delay, began to pursue the enemy, 9 September she took Hawtin, garrison and many residents who fled, leaving the city of half empty. Soon Iasi were busy. After that the prince gave the army Rumyantsev, and returned to St. Petersburg, where the Empress met him cordially and awarded the rank of Field Marshal (20 October 1769). At the conclusion of Kuchuk-Kainarji conqueror Khotin was granted decorated diamond sword with the inscription: "For the cleansing of Moldova up to the Yass". The most distinguished in the defeat of the Turks near Khotyn 69th Ryazan Infantry Regiment began to carry the name Golitsyn.

Military Writer D.Bantysh-Kamensky leads a case relating to 1769. Passing through Moscow the conqueror Khotina invited Field Marshal P.Saltykova, under the banner under which he fought Kunersdorf, visit the Cathedral of the Assumption. When they entered into the temple, which at that moment there was no one, Golitsyn Saltykov said: "It`s so empty, as in Khotyn".

After the war, Field Marshal Golitsyn remained one of the closest to Catherine statesmen. From 1769 member of the Council of the Supreme Court; in 1772 Adjutant General; In December 1774, Senator; 1775 - 1782 Member of the Board at the 1st Cadet Corps; 1777 Chief of the troops in Livonia located; from September 1778 Chief Director of the Revision Collegium; May 1779 - appointed to present to the Commission on the structure of the capital and other cities.

In 1780, at the initiative of Alexander`s nobility Petersburg province has decided to present to Catherine the title of "the Great Mother of the Fatherland", but the Empress refused this honor, said the prince, "Do not let the name acquisition is the subject of my reign, but delivering blessings and peace to the fatherland."

Golitsyn performed the duties of the governor-general (supreme commander of the St. Petersburg) (1775 and 1780-1783), many engaged in the modernization of the capital. In 1775 it finished casting an equestrian statue of Peter I. Catherine II Decree of 17 April in St. Petersburg was established a new general education school - Gymnasium outlandish fellow. When you created the Foundling home savings and loan institution for the grant of loans on bail and receiving contributions from the nobility. in Russian is given in the first Russian opera - "Cephalus and Procris."

In 1782 rebuilt police apparatus - created Uprava Deanery headed by the Chief of Police. Petersburg is divided into 10 kinds of police led by private police. Open Obukhov (city) hospital with the House of Charity for the insane. Stone built warehouses for storage of forest on the island of New Holland. August 7, 1782 Golitsyn commanded the opening ceremony of the monument to Peter the Great on the Senate Square.

With the establishment of the Order of St. Vladimir Ekaterina 22 September 1782 laid on the tape in the order of Golitsyn including eleven persons honored with this award. Like his father, Field Marshal Golitsyn was brave, full of honor, generosity, and love the modest soldiers, which he always tried to take care of. He was buried in the Church of the Annunciation in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.