Alexander Gelfand

Picture of Alexander Gelfand

Age: 148

Citizenship: Russia


Alexander (Israel) Lazarevich Gelfand (Parvus, Molotov, Moscovici) was born in 1867 in the town of Berezino Minsk province in the family of a Jewish craftsman. He studied at the Odessa school. In Odessa, belonged to the People`s Will mugs. As a 19-year old youth, Parvus moved to Zurich, where he met with prominent members of the "Liberation of Labour Group" - GV Plekhanov, PB Axelrod and Vera Zasulich. Under their influence, the young Gelfand-Parvus became a Marxist, in 1887 he enrolled at the University of Basel, where he graduated in 1891, received the title of Doctor of Philosophy. Soon he moved to Germany and joined the German Social Democratic Party, not breaking, however, relations with the Russian Social-Democrats. I became acquainted with Karl Kautsky, Clara Zetkin, V. Adler, Rosa Luxemburg. Very early he became interested in the German police. He had to literally roam on German cities, living in Berlin, in Dresden, in Munich, then in Leipzig, then in Stuttgart. In Munich, Parvus met with Lenin, who, together with Krupskaya was frequently at his home.

Parvus was absolutely no sense of homeland. "I`m looking for the state where a person can get a cheap country", - he wrote once Liebknecht V.. (L. Shub "Merchant Revolution" // New Journal. Kn.87. New York, 1967. S. 296.)

When the Russian-Japanese war, Parvus published in the "Iskra" several articles under the general title "War and Revolution". In his articles the author predicted inevitable defeat of Russia in the war with Japan, and as a result of the defeat, the Russian revolution. It seemed to him that the "Russian Revolution has shaken the foundations of the capitalist world and the Russian working class is destined to play a vanguard role in the global social revolution." (L. Shub "Merchant Revolution" // New Journal. Kn.87. New York, 1967. S. 298.) Parvus predictions about the outcome of the Russian-Japanese War came true, which contributed to strengthening its credibility as an analyst.

Parvus has given new breath to the Marxist theory of "permanent revolution" and drew her Trotsky. Their acquaintance happened in the autumn of 1904 in Munich. (Lev Trotsky. My life. Experience autobiography, pp. 167.)

During the famine in Russia 1898-1899 gg. we will again see Parvus in our country. He watched carefully to what is happening and on his return to Germany was published in collaboration with K. Lehmann thorough work on the causes of famine in Russia. (Lehmann S. u. Parvus. Das hungernde Russland. Stuttgart, 1900)

When in October 1905 broke the first Russian revolution, Parvus arrived in St. Petersburg and here along with Trotsky joined the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers` Deputies, having developed a violent revolutionary activities. "For us, the revolution was the elements, though very rebellious, -pisal this time Trotskiy.- Everything was your hour and the place. Some even have time to live and personal life, fall in love, make new acquaintances and even visit revolutionary theaters. Parvus so pleased new satirical play that he immediately bought 50 tickets for friends on the following idea. We need to explain that he had received the day before royalties for his books. When arrested, Parvus in his pocket found fifty theater tickets. The gendarmes long fought over this revolutionary puzzle. They are not We know that Parvus did everything on a grand scale. " (Lehmann S. u. Parvus. Das hungernde Russland. Stuttgart, 1900. 178)

Parvus peculiar assessment of activities in the First Russian Revolution can serve as words of Gorky, who in a letter to I.P.Ladyzhnikovu from the second half of December (old style) in 1905, wrote: "It`s disgusting to see him a demagogue, a la Hapon". (Gorky M. Fuller. Cit. Op. Hudozhstv. Manuf. At 25 m. M., 1974. T.20. S. 539.)

For the organization of revolutionary action in Russia, Parvus was convicted and sentenced to exile in Turukhansk, but ran off the road, first in St. Petersburg, and then to Germany, where he underwent a fun, almost anecdotal story to which inadvertently was involved in Gorky . Here is what says in the essay "Lenin" proletarian writer himself: "To the German party I had a" delicate "matter: a prominent member of it, then the highly acclaimed Parvus had from" Knowledge "(publisher - I. Froyanov.) power of attorney to collect the fee from the theater for the play "the Lower Depths" he received this authorization in the year 902 in Sevastopol, at the station, arriving there illegally collected money to them were distributed as follows:.. 20% on the total amount received it, and the rest was divided as follows: quarter- I, three-quarters of the cashier Social-Democratic party. Parvus this condition, of course, knew it, and even admired him. play rounds of all the theaters in Germany, in Berlin alone was staged more than 500 times, Parvus collected over four years, it seems 100 thousand marks. But instead of money he sent to the "Knowledge" KP Pyatnitsky letter in which he good-naturedly said that all the money he spent on the journey with a young lady in Italy. since this is probably a very nice trip, I am personally concerned only a quarter, then found himself the right to specify the Central Committee of the German party to the remaining three-quarters of it. He pointed across the IP Ladyzhnikov. CC took to travel Parvus indifferently. Later I heard that Parvus deprived of some party officials, says the truth, I would prefer to have him kicked ears. Still later, in Paris, I found a very beautiful maiden or lady, saying that it was traveling with her Parvus. "My dear, - I thought, -Honey" (M. Gorky Full Collection of Works Hudozhstv Manuf In 25 m M., 1974. S. 10-11 T.20........) "* 1). IP Ladyzhnikov through whom Gorky advised the Central Committee of the German Social-democratic party of indiscretions Parvus, said additional details: "Parvus squandered the money he embezzled from the production of the play" The Lower Depths "in Germany. I have spent about 130 thousand marks. That money was to be transferred to the party funds. In December 1909 at the request of Gorky and Lenin, I said twice in Berlin with Bebel and Karl Kautsky to this matter and it was decided to transfer the case to the arbitral tribunal (or rather, the party). The result was sad. Parvus banned from editing Democrats newspapers, waste of money, he is not covered. "(Gorky M. Fuller. cit. op. Hudozhstv. Manuf. At 25 m. M., 1974. T.20. S. 539.)

At the end of 1907 or early 1908, Parvus tried a "party court" composed of Kautsky, Bebel and Clara Zetkin. According to the oral memories L.G.Deycha, members of the "trial" were Russian Social-Democrats, in particular, he Deitch. As the "not the prosecutor, not the witness acted" as if Gorky (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 241). (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 242. - S. 242. - Bitter, as we know, does not say anything about it Moreover, he says something else Deitch, probably messed up here...) In the unanimous decision of the "court" Parvus forbidden participation in Russian and German social-democratic movement. (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 242. - S. 242.) That is why he went to live in Constantinople. * 2) If, in a letter to his friend, p. Luxembourg Parvus was telling the truth, then stay in Constantinople he assumed short, only 4-5 months. But everything turned out differently: in Constantinople Parvus spent about 5 years. It was there as Shub says, "began the most sensational th chapter of life of this man." (L. Shub "Merchant Revolution", pp. 301.)

Strange but true: Parvus became a political and financial adviser to the government of the Young Turks. In Turkey, it is very rich, as evidenced by his contemporaries and those who later took the life of Parvus. * 3) It seems Gelfand gained great influence in the financial world, becoming a prominent figure "world behind the scenes."

Immediately after Germany`s declaration of war Russia Constantinople Telegraphic Agency published "Parvus appeal to the Russian socialists and revolutionaries, in which he strongly attacked the Plekhanov and other socialists who opposed Germany, accusing them of" nationalism "and" chauvinism ". Parvus called Russian socialists and revolutionaries contribute to the defeat of Russia in the interests of European democracy. " (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 237.)

Russia aroused Parvus wild rage and hatred. He decided to do everything to destroy it. They had worked out a plan of action, which stood in the center of Germany. Of course, he did not act alone, embodying the collective will of certain individuals. But outwardly it looked as if he led an independent game.

January 8, 1915 Parvus came to the German ambassador in Constantinople background Vagenheymu the following statement:. "Russian democracy can achieve its objectives only through the final overthrow of the tsarist and the dismemberment of Russia into small states on the other hand, Germany will not be a complete success, if it not be able to cause a lot of revolution in Russia. But the Russian threat to Germany will not disappear even after the war up until the Russian state will not be broken up into separate parts. German government interests and the interests of the Russian revolutionaries thus identical. " (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 237.) Parvus, as we see, offered to destroy the historical Russian, creating instead a conglomeration of small states.

The German government has an interest in the plan Parvus and invited him to Berlin for an interview, where he arrived March 6, 1915, Parvus had brought with him a lengthy memorandum "Preparation of political mass strikes in Russia." From this and went "wedding" Parvus with German intelligence agencies.

The memorandum contains detailed recommendations on "how to cause unrest in Russia and to prepare a revolution that will force the king to abdicate, after which will be formed by a provisional revolutionary government, which is ready to make a separate peace with Germany. In Persha turn Parvus encouraged the German government to allocate a large sum for the development and support of separatist movements among the various ethnic groups in the Caucasus, Finland, the Ukraine, and then on "financial support of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-democratic Labour party, which is fighting against the tsarist government by all means at its disposal. Its leaders are in Switzerland. "Parvus also recommended to provide financial support," the Russian revolutionary writers who will take part in the struggle against the tsarist regime, even during the war. ` " (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 238.)

The Germans had Parvus overall layout. He received a German passport, and after him 2 million stamps "to support Russian revolutionary propaganda." (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 238.) That was only the beginning ...

In May 1915 in Zurich Parvus met with Lenin, who listened attentively to his suggestions, not giving him a definite answer. (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 238.) * 4) G.M.Katkov not without reason states that "the collusion not occurred." (GM Katkov February Revolution, pp. 96.) Although the content of the conversation with Lenin remained a mystery, Parvus still told the Germans that "has not agreed with Lenin and decided to pursue his plan of revolution in Russia alone." (GM Katkov February Revolution, pp. 95.) * 5) Katkov correctly notes that Lenin`s defeatism fundamentally different from Russian Parvus Plan destruction. (GM Katkov February Revolution, pp. 95.)

Lenin probably felt with anyone now deals in the name of Parvus. Therefore, he later referred to as "the merchant revolution" coldly and with hostility, kept him at a distance. It is known that after the overthrow of the Provisional Government through Parvus Radek asked Lenin to allow him to return to Russia. Lenin said in response: "The cause of the revolution should not be tainted by dirty hands." (L. Shub "Merchant Revolution", pp. 321-322.)

It should be noted that Lenin`s attitude to Parvus has evolved from best to worst. First, he spoke well of Parvus as a scientist and publicist. In a letter to Potresov from January 26, 1899, Lenin wrote: "As for Parvusa-I have not the slightest idea about his personal character, and does not deny him a big talent." (Lenin Poln. T.46. S. 21.) In his review of the book Parvus "World Market and the Agricultural Crisis", published in St. Petersburg in 1898, Lenin calls the author "a talented Germanic publicist" and " strongly "recommends" to all readers interested marked (retsenzentom.- I.Froyanov) issues, familiarization with Parvus book "because" it is a wonderful contrast to walking populist arguments about the current agricultural crisis, which are constantly found in the populist press and that a significant drawback sin : the fact the crisis is seen outside the context of the general development of world capitalism, is seen only in order to remove the middle-class morality of the vitality of the small peasant economy. " (Lenin Poln. T.46. C. 60,61-62.) Book K. Lehmann and Parvus` starving Russia ", published in Germany, Lenin called interesting. (Lenin Poln. T.46, pp. 421.) While in Shushenskoye, exile, Lenin asks his mother, M.A.Ulyanovu, send articles Parvus against Bernstein. (Lenin Poln. T.55, pp. 177.) In the debate with the opponents he refers to Parvus to reinforce their point of view. (Lenin Poln T.55 S. 151, 421; T. 16 S. 284-285; T. 19 S. 161-162...) Initially, Parvus for Lenin - "good Parvus," and without irony. (Lenin Poln T.8 S. 101;.. T. 9 S. 264 - ironically in the mouth of Lenin this phrase will aozdnee - see VI Lenin Poln T.11 C... . 264-265).

Lenin highly approved of Parvus publications in the newspaper "Iskra" on the organizational issues of the revolutionary movement. Under the influence of the bloody events of January 1905 found, according to Lenin, "the vast reserve of revolutionary energy of the proletariat and the entire lack of organization of social democrats, Menshevik Parvus` come to his senses. In the number 85 of "Iskra", he wrote an article, Banner, in essence, a complete turnaround from the new ideas of new opportunistic "Sparks" to the revolutionary ideas of the old "Iskra". "(VI Lenin Poln. V.9. pp. 264-265) Lenin was pleased exclaimed: "at last the revolutionary instinct of the proletarian party has prevailed, at least temporarily over Rabocheye opportunism. Finally, we hear the voice of the Social-Democrat who does not cringe before the revolution`s rearguard but fearlessly points to the task of supporting the vanguard of the revolution. "(Lenin Poln. V.9, pp. 265.) Lenin said that Parvus exactly Bolshevik suddenly became, (Lenin Poln. v.9, pp. 266) and its "excellent article" ends "wonderful advice" jettison disrupters ". (Lenin Poln. V.9, pp. 273.)

In a newspaper article "The Social-Democracy and the Provisional Revolutionary Government" (April 1905) Lenin again starts talking about Parvus, "Parvus thousand times right when he says that the Social-Democrats must not be afraid of bold steps forward, should not be afraid of applying joint "blows" the enemy hand in hand with the revolutionary bourgeois democrats, with the necessary (really, by the way, reminds) the condition not to confuse the organization; march separately, strike together; do not hide the diversity of interests, monitor their ally, both as an enemy, etc. . d. But the hotter our sympathy to all those slogans turned away from the tail-enders of the revolutionary Social-Democrats, the unpleasant impression on us some wrong notes taken by Parvus. and not because of fault-finding mark we these little infidelity, but because to whom much is given, much will be demanded. Total dangerous it would be now, if correct position Parvus was compromised by his own negligence. " (Lenin Poln. Vol.10, pp. 16.) However, the approval soon gave way to criticism.

Sharp disagreements arose over the treatment of the Bulygin Duma and the Cadets. Parvus spoke out against a boycott of the Duma and tactics for small transactions with the Cadet Party. Lenin became clear that "... Parvus confused. He fights against the idea of ??a boycott, he advises not to interfere and disrupt their meetings, and it was right, he says penetrate into force meeting (this does not mean" to pluck "?), Turn them during business meetings ... ". Lenin asked: "Why confused Parvus?". And he answers:.. "Because he did not understand the subject matter of the dispute he was going to fight against the idea of ??a boycott, imagining that the boycott means easy removal, rejection of the idea to use the election meetings for our agitation Meanwhile, a passive boycott anyone, even in the legal press, not to mention illegal, not preached. Parvus reveals utter ignorance of Russian political issues, as he mixes a passive and an active boycott, when it, start to talk about a boycott, a single word does not examine the second boycott "(VI Lenin Poln .. T.11 S. 251.) According to Lenin, Parvus had happened "a little bad luck: he walked in one door and got into another". (Lenin Poln. T.11, pp. 252.) Lenin was convinced that "Parliament is in Russian sein, move to the Russian parliamentary tactics, so unworthy of playing at parliamentarianism, then the leader of the revolutionary workers` and conscious peasants converted into an appendage of the landlords. Replace temporary agreements missing in our political parties open secret deal with Rodichev Petrunkevich and support them against Stakhovich, to sow corruption in the work environment. " (Lenin Poln T.11 S. 256;.. T. 14 S. 171, S. 15, T. 61-62; T.16 S. 17-18; T. 47 S. 87. ) * 6) Lenin finally and forever broke with Parvus during the First world war. In "the last line," he wrote, "Parvus, who showed himself an adventurer in the Russian revolution, is now down to the magazine published by them" Die Glocke "(" bell ") to the last line ... It protects the German opportunists with an incredibly arrogant. . and smug he burned all that worshiped; he "forgot" about the struggle of the revolutionary and opportunist trends and their history in the international Social-democracy With swagger confident in approving the bourgeoisie columnist slams it in Marx`s shoulder, "adjusting" it without shadows. diligent and careful scrutiny. and some of Engels where he treats directly with contempt. it protects the pacifists and internationalists in England, nationalist and jingo in Germany. he scolds chauvinists and henchmen of the bourgeoisie the social-patriots of English, the greatness of the German Social-revolutionary Democrats ... he licks the boots Hindenburg, assuring his readers that "the German General Staff called for a revolution in Russia" ... ". (Lenin Poln T.27 S. 82...) Publications parvusovskogo magazine Lenin called "continuous cesspool of German chauvinism", and the magazine - "apostasy authority and servility in Germany." (Lenin Poln. T.27, pp. 83.) * 7)

The negative attitude of Lenin to Parvus is crowned by a telephone Leninist (4 February 1922) addressed to VM Molotov and other members of the Politburo: "I propose to assign the investigation about the person who posted the other day in the newspapers a telegram outlining writings Parvus. By clarifying the culprit, I propose that heads of department Growth severely reprimanded directly responsible journalist bend from the service, for only a fool or a White Guard could turn our newspaper advertising tool for such a wretch like Parvus. " (Lenin Poln. T.44, pp. 381.) There was a decision of the Politburo of the RCP (b) on March 11, 1922 .: "Recognize printing a telegram out of place, because it is perceived as advertising Parvus, and to oblige edition of the party and Soviet newspapers of the printed telegram desist. " (Lenin Poln. T.44, pp. 381.) Thus, "good Parvus" and "scoundrel Parvus" -Here the initial and final certification, given by Lenin Gelfand-Parvus. What is the reason such a strong leader of the revolution change attitudes to "the merchant resolution"? It is, in our opinion, is not that of Lenin tricks or tactically tried to disassociate themselves from the odious personality Parvus, in order to divert suspicion from himself in collusion with him on the basis of "German money." The reason for the Parvus, in fact its activities. Lenin did not know if, then guess who the Parvus, with whom he, in addition to German, bound, what is its role in the ongoing furtive. Now we can only very presumably to talk about the role. However, before we touch the topic, here are some more statements about Parvus.

That`s about it, Trotsky says. "Parvus was undoubtedly an outstanding Marxist figure of the end of last and the beginning of this century, he freely vladelmetodom Marx looked widely followed in all material on the global stage, that the outstanding courage of thought and manly, muscular style making it a truly wonderful writer. his old work brought me closer to social revolution, finally turning to me the conquest of power by the proletariat from an astronomical "final" goal to a practical task of our time. Nevertheless, Parvus was always something erratic and unreliable. in addition to Among other things, this was a revolutionary obsessed with an unexpected dream: get rich And this dream he is in those years, too, linked with its social and revolutionary concept. ". (... Leo Trotsky`s autobiography My Life Experience S. 168) Regarding the participation in the 1905 revolution, Parvus, Trotsky remarks: "Although the initiative and ingenuity of his mind, he did not discovered the qualities of the leader." According to Trotsky, "after the defeat of the 1905 revolution for him (Parvusa.- I. Froyanov) begins a period of decline. He moved from Germany to Vienna, and from there to Constantinople, where he caught his World War II. She immediately enriched Parvus to some military and commercial operations. at the same time he speaks in public, as a defender of the progressive mission of German militarism, tears finally to the left and becomes one of the masterminds of the extreme right wing of the German Social democracy. Needless to say, since the war, I broke up with him, not only political, but and personal relationships. " (Lev Trotsky. My life. Experience autobiography, pp. 168)

Significantly less eminent than Trotsky, social-democratic publicist E. Smirnov (Gurevich) so Parvus spoke about: "During the 1905 revolution, Parvus during his short-term activities in St. Petersburg discovered some inclination to political adventures, and many of us, his comrades since we treated him with some caution. " (., As cited in L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 230.)

One of the leaders of the "Bund" A. Litvak, with reference to Karl Radek spoke about Parvus as a person is very capable, "but debauchery, dishonest and unfair to women." (., As cited in L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 259.)

Shub said Parvus legendary figure, but at the same time celebrates its passion for money and unscrupulous. Under the influence of these vile qualities Parvus "became a paid agent of the German government." (D. Shub 1) "Merchant of the revolution." S. 295; 2) Lenin and Wilhelm !! ... S. 243.)

According to Solzhenitsyn, Parvus` was once a beggar, all Social-Democrats, and to go to Turkey to organize strikes ... is now openly wrote that the rich, as he needs (as heard rumors-fabulous), it`s time to get rich and party. He well wrote to the faithful of all to overthrow capitalism, it is helpful to become capitalists. Socialists must first become capitalists. Socialists laughed, Rosa, Clara and Liebknecht expressed Parvus his contempt. But it may be premature. Against real money power of Parvus ridicule withered. " (. A. Solzhenitsyn, Lenin in Zurich S. 15.) Solzhenitsyn depicts Parvus contradictory personality: "A desperate revolutionary, not to shake the hand of the empire, ruin and passionate marketer, trembling hand, otschitybaya money Went into the shoes torn, frayed pants, but still. Munich 901-year repeating Lenin: it is necessary to get rich money is the greatest force Or:!. back in Odessa under Alexander III stated the problem, that the liberation of the Jews possible overthrow of the royal power, and immediately lost interest in Russian affairs, had gone to the West. .. `. (A. Solzhenitsyn, Lenin in Zurich, pp. 101) As subsequent events showed, Parvus has not disappeared interest "in Russian affairs." On the contrary, he linked reconstruction of Western Europe with the collapse of Russia, if not the world.

The adventurous and romantic plan provides Parvus historian February G.M.Katkov. For him Alexander Gelfand- "living proof that adventurers of the XX century can play a decisive role in the politics of the great powers during the First World War, no less than those of the adventurers in the intrigues of the Italian states of the Renaissance." (GM Katkov February revolution. P.93.)

Dialogical way, namely in the subjective psychological terms, talks about Parvus VI Kuznetsov, calling it "the biggest political Falstaff XX century". (Whether Lenin was a German agent ?... Documents, pp. 6.) The author seems to be that the "fraud on the energy, talent and speculative demagogic gift it can be compared to the famous charlatans XVIII century Saint-Germain and" Count "Cagliostro". (Whether Lenin was a German agent ?... Documents, pp. 6.) According to Kuznetsov, Parvus- "ominous for the fate of Russia`s name."

Literary "gold digger" I. Bunich shows Parvus` international adventurer "large scale. He puts Gelfand above Lenin, since the first was a "mentor and teacher" of the second. (Bunich I. Gold Party. P.31) And this "international adventurer" formed close contact "with the global club of international banks", he founded the "banks and trading companies, moving his enormous sums." (Bunich I. Gold Party. S.33,34) As he did, with whose help he was his own man in the "global club of international banks", Bunich not explain. So Parvus serves him as a lone hero, a phenomenon which could cause a surprise.

GL Sobolev looks at Parvus as "a former Social Democrat, then an ardent chauvinist, businessman and swindler, nazhivshegosya military supplies." (Sobolev GL about German agents ...)

Conflicting characteristic gives Parvus Volkogonov. On the one hand, Parvus had though "dark", but "viciously talented" man who played "demonic role in Russian history" (DA Volkogonov Lenin. Political Portrait. Kh. S. 201) and on the other, "minor person" in general and "trusted person pay the German authorities" in particular. (DA Volkogonov Lenin. Political portrait. Kh. S. 217.218)

According to Mr. S. Katz, "Parvus very interesting personality, mysterious and worthy of study, as well as Lenin`s personality. Especially in connection with the secret of his influence on the development of the revolutionary drama." (Katz AS Jews. Christianity. Russia, pp. 255), Parvus and the Lenin "great men." (Katz AS Jews. Christianity. Russia, pp. 255.) With specific regard to Parvus, that "it was kommertsialno gifted revolutionary, philosophically-minded businessman, politician, Russian-German Social Democrat, ideologist, breakthrough, journalist, publisher and a lover of sweet life "(Katz AS Jews. Christianity. Russia, pp. 255.)

These are some judgments about Parvus historians, writers and politicians. Much of this judgment seems to us insufficient. You can not naively accept Parvus as a paid German agent. He was much more distinct and significant than a simple agent. Nor can we regard it as an adventurous superpersonal acting alone, at your own risk, on a purely private initiative. This view is at least naive. For Parvus stood strong and extremely powerful force nadmirovye, design and plan that he seems to have exercised.

It is very essential for the clarification of the problem is a five-year stay in Parvus Constantinople. Hardly Gelfand went to the Turkish capital, to organize strikes there as Solzhenitsyn thought, or to plunge into the social movement in the Balkans experiencing an unstable situation, as I thought GM Katkov. After the famous "party court" Parvus greatly needed support. He searched and found in Constantinople, where he has long lived the influential Jewish community.

Already in the XV century, the situation of Jews in Turkey was far more preferable than in Western Europe. "Byzantium Conqueror Mohammed II, - writes L.Tihomirov, -otnosilsya the Jews favorably for all the time of his reign, in this era of Spain was already a considerable emigration of Jews to the East, and much of it was settled in the Turkish dominions, had not yet covering either. Egypt or Syria. Byzantine Jews welcomed every success of the Turks, and between the Spanish emigres had a lot of people, useful for Mohammed both in their knowledge of European affairs, and in his specialty, namely, gunsmiths, has been famous in Toledo. These people brought a lot of help Turks in their final struggle with the dying Byzantine Empire. When Constantinople fell in 1453, it was the liberation of the Jews, that Mohammed II gave full freedom and self-government, even exceeds the norm that the Jews used to get in Mohammedan countries. Above all the Jewish communities in Turkey Mohammed appointed supreme head of the so-called High-chachamim, what position was well-known scholar Moses Kaisali ". (Tikhomirov LA Religious and philosophical foundations of history. M., 1997, p 354.)

The capture of Constantinople by the Turks made a resounding impression on Europe. And in some circles Marranos (Jews of Spanish-Jewish converts to Christianity, were forced to accept Catholicism, but keeps in mind loyalty to Judaism) the victory of the Turks was perceived, according to Polyakov, as signs of "close fall" Edom "and the imminent liberation of Israel. One group of Marranos in Valencia in the belief that it was a phenomenon of the Messiah on the hill near the Bosporus, prepared to emigrate to Turkey. "... The blind goyim do not realize that once we were under their yoke, our Lord will make sure that we had the dominion over them , says one of the zealous advocates of this dvizheniya.-Our Lord has promised us that we will go to Turkey. We have heard that soon will be the coming of the Antichrist. They say that the Turk is what he is; said that he would destroy the Christian church and make it stall for cattle, as for Jews and synagogues, then they will be very respectful attitude ... "Some members of the group managed to reach Constantinople ...". (L. Poliakov history of anti-Semitism. The era of faith. M .; Jerusalem, 1997, pp 130)

The resettlement of the Jews in Turkey is particularly increased in the late XV century due to their expulsion from Spain. (L. Poliakov history of anti-Semitism. The era of faith. M .; Jerusalem, 1997, pp 142-144) Turks willingly accept immigrants. Sultan Bajazet spoke about the Spanish King Ferdinand who signed March 31, 1492, together with Isabella edict of expulsion of Jews from Spain: "Do you think Fernando smart korolem- But he ruined his own country and enriched our" .Blagovolenie Turks to the Jewish community and expressed in that the supreme chachamim was placed "very high in the hierarchy of the Turkish authorities, close to the mufti and above Christian patriarch. his power was extensive and had a political character." (Tikhomirov LA Religious and philosophical foundations ... S. 354.) L.Tihomirov no doubt that "the Jews helped each other to get into the scope of the ruling, as from the first moment when the dispensation of Mahomet II policy was that their to be in constant communication with the authorities, to get along with them, to bribe and so. " (Tikhomirov LA Religious and philosophical foundations ... S. 356)

In addition to the Jewish community in Constantinople Istanbul-lived Greek and Armenian communities. According to the observations YA Petrosyan, the most numerous were the Greek community. The Armenians were the second largest group of non-Turkish population of Constantinople. "Third place belonged to Jews. First, they held a dozen blocks from the Golden Horn, and then began to settle in other areas of the old city?" There were Jewish neighborhoods on the northern shore of the Golden Horn. Jews have traditionally participated in the brokering of international trade played an important role in the banking industry "(YA Petrosyan might of the Ottoman Empire and the death:.. Historical essays M., 1990, p 74.).

Despite the fact that the largest Jewish community gave way to Greek and Armenian, it was highly influential. And it retained its significance, apparently, to the beginning of XX century. An indirect confirmation of this, in our opinion, can serve as the appointment of the head of the Jewish financial world in America Strauss American ambassador in Constantinople. (SY Witte Memories. V.2. S.439-440) Now we again have to turn to Parvus. Our assumption is that Parvus arrived Constantinople became the political and financial adviser to the government of the Young Turks and the myriad human wealth through the Jewish community. Whatever skills and talents he possessed, he could not afford to do this himself, without outside support. And such support could have a Gelfand only his own countrymen, and nobody else.

Accepting help and support, Parvus, apparently, took upon himself and any obligation on the nature of which should be judged by Gelfand activities. It is, as we know, is entirely focused on the destruction of historical Russia: elimination of the autocracy and the dismemberment of the Russian Empire. In principle, we do not see there is nothing unusual or new. Recall threats Schiff and Loeb, recall the February 1916 secret meeting in New York, where it was decided to proceed to take action to "raise a great revolution in Russia