Date of Birth: 12/18/1745
Place of birth: Como
Italian physicist and physiologist
In 1774-1779 he taught physics at the high school in Como. By this time his research on the chemistry and manufacturing of a number of physical and chemical devices. He studied the combustible gases, discovered methane gaz` `Marsh, designed a hydrogen lamp and eudiometer. But the real fame Volta brought elektrofora invention (device, clearly illustrating the electrification of bodies by induction), which enabled him in 1779 to take a professorship at the University of Pavia. In 1784 he created a sensitive electroscope with a straw, invented the flat capacitor, found the conductivity of the flame. In 1815 he became rector of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Padua, in 1819 resigned.
In 1792, intrigued by experiments with `L.Galvani zhivotnym` electricity, Volta decided to check their results and very soon came to the conclusion that the observed effect is not physiological, and physical nature. He established the importance of using as electrodes of dissimilar metals and performed experiments with different pairs of electrodes. It was found that the physiological razdrazhenienervov stronger the farther apart the two metals in the following order: zinc, tin foil, tin, lead, iron, brass, etc. to silver, mercury, graphite. This famous series of stress (activity) and the Volta effect was the kernel. frog muscle was merely passive, but very sensitive electrometer, and the link is active metals from the contact which took place, and their mutual electrification (contact potential difference occurred). Trying to increase the contact pressure, Volta built tsepiiz different metals, which led him to the invention, performing the revolution in the science of electricity: in 1800 he designed the first DC power source - `stolb` volts. The device consisted of 20 pairs of copper and zinc circles, which were divided woolen pads soaked with salt water. In 1801, Volta was invited to France to demonstrate `stolba`, he was awarded a gold medal and the title of Count. The name of the unit is called the Volta potential difference and voltage.
Died Volta in Como, 5 March 1827.