Metropolitan Alexy (secular - Eleutherius F. Byakont (name also in many sources is listed as Pleshcheev), according to other sources - Simeon; approx. 1295 Moscow - February 12, 1378 Moscow, the son of Theodore Byakont) - metropolitan Kiev and All Russia, the prelate, statesman, diplomat.
Raised Metropolitan Feognost; delivered in 1355 by Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia. With exceptional intelligence and abilities, was the de facto ruler of the Moscow principality with three princes of Moscow; in 1366 he began construction of a stone Moscow Kremlin. He enjoyed great favor in the Horde, where he healed aching eyes Hanshi Taydulu; It contributed to the fact that the great reign strengthened finally over Moscow princes.
50 years after his death, the saint was canonized Alexis. His relics were found in 1431 (according to other danym, in 1439 or 1438), which he founded in the Miracle Monastery in the Kremlin as a result of rehabilitation works and placed in the church of the Archangel Michael; in 1485 moved to the temple Aleksievsky Chudova monastery; in 1686 - in the newly built temple of the Annunciation of the same monastery; 1947 buried in Epiphany that Yelokhovo, the cathedral in Moscow.
Heavenly patron of the Patriarch of Moscow: Alexy I and Alexy II.
Memory according to the Julian calendar: February 12 - Repose; May 20 - Aubrais & # 769; tenie relics; 5 October - The Cathedral of the Moscow saints.
He was born in the autumn of 1304 (?) In Moscow in the family Boyar Fyodor Byakont and his wife Maria, who came from Chernigov. The family of the future Primate occupied a prominent place among the Moscow boyars end of XIII-XIV. The boyars were his younger brothers - Theophane (Fofana), founder of Fofanova (the Grand Duke John Ioannovich Red and Dimitry Donskoy Ioannovich), and Alexander splashing, founder of Pleshcheeva (the Grand Duke Dimitri Ioannovich). Early chronicles sources (Rogozhsky chronicler Simeon Chronicle, reflecting Moscow arch 1409) called St. Alexis in baptism, Simeon, and the life, written in 1459 Pachomius Logofet and later chronicles - Eleutherius (colloquial form Olfer (Alferov) the initial letter corresponds to the monastic name) ; In some lists the XVII century. Nikon Chronicle gives the two names together. It is possible that sources reflect the existence of St. Alexis the so-called direct name (corresponding to the saint whose memory falls on the day of birth) and the baptismal (a situation well known to the example of the Christian princes of double names). The close proximity of Eleutherius names and Simeon observed in the calendar twice: Simeon Simpleton, memory on July 21 and martyr Eleutherius, memory 4 August; Simeon kinsman of the Lord, the memory of September 18, and Eleutherius, tortured with Dionysius the Areopagite, the memory of October 3; first 2 memory present in the very short version of calendars known in the XIV century. Notes on the date of birth, even in the ancient story of the Code in 1409 are highly contradictory. In a sufficiently detailed chronological calculations, based on which the year of birth is considered to 1293rd  "in cherntsi tonsured 20 years, and in chernechestve pickings 40 those years, and metropolitans put byst 60 those years, and prebyst in 24 mitropoliteh summer. And there was all the days of his zhitia 85 years "- is deemed reliable only length of stay at the head of the Archdiocese. At the same time a reference to 40 years of monastic life could arise as a result of incorrect interpretation reports that Saint Alexius "prebyst in chernechestve even up to 40-years old," , in which the question is not so much on the duration of monastic feat, but the the approximate age of the appointment of St. Alexis Episcopal vicar. Preference in determining the time of birth should be given to mention the modern Saint Alexei historical persons and events that are not consistent with the date 1293: "In the reign of Michael Yaroslavich great tferskoe with Metropolitan Maxim, to slaughter Akinfova" (that is, before the march on Pereyaslavl winter 1304-1305 Tver boyar Akinfiev Great ). Important evidence of the story that St Alexis` older sy Prince Grand Seeds (b. In 1317) 17 years " relating the birth of the saint in 1300, could not be unconditionally accepted, as there can slip (inner dictation error) in recording under the name of the sound influence ( "Seeds" - "semnadesyat" instead of "trinadesyat"). If we assume that the year of birth of St. Alexis the 1300 th, then as Grand Duke was supposed to be mentioned Andrey Gorodetsky, not Michael of Kiev (although the latter returned from the Horde, the label on the great reign in the autumn 1305, ie after the murder Akinfova, later the biographer of St. Alexis could calculate the beginning of a new reign of the date of the death of Prince Andrew -. 27 July 1304). Godfather of St. Alexis was prince John Danilovich (future Kalita).
According to the Life, to learn to read and write at an early age, St. Alexius already in adolescence began to dream of a monastic life, after once falling asleep on catching bird snares, he heard a voice calling of his monastic name and boding become "fishers of men."
19 years tonsured, according to the Life of St. Sergius of Radonezh, the Epiphany monastery in the countryside (modern China Town), elder brother of St. Sergius the abbot Stephen, confessor of the great princes; However, according to other reliable sources, the saint and his relationship with this kind of abode can not be traced.
Until about 40 years Alex led the monastic life. On most of this period, we only know that Saint Alexius "Every blagoizvolenie monastic life Fixed and differently Scriptures of the Old and the New Law proide". Undoubtedly, in this time, he continued to maintain communication with the grand courtyard. At the initiative of the Grand Prince Simeon Ivanovich the Proud (taking into account the testimony of the chronicle of the story, not earlier than 1344) Alexy was appointed governor of the aged Metropolitan Theognost and moved to the courtyard of the Metropolitan. Maybe during the governorship he learned Greek.
Metropolitan Feognost during the life of blessed Alexius "in his place the Metropolitan"; December 6, 1352 Alexis was devoted bishop in Vladimir-on-Klyazma. Thus, for a short time it was restored Vladimir Diocese, abolished in 1299 in connection with the relocation of Kiev Metropolitan Vladimir; after the construction of St. Alexis in the metropolitan department was again eliminated.
In Constantinople, it was sent to the Embassy of the Grand Prince Simeon Ivanovich and Metropolitan Theognost to obtain the consent of the Patriarch to approve the candidacy of St. Alexis. Already at that time, the role of St. Alexis in the public affairs of the Grand Duchy of Moscow was quite high: according to the testaments of the Grand Duke Simeon (