Aleksey Kozlov

Picture of Aleksey Kozlov

Date of Birth: 08/02/1831

Age: 90

Place of birth: Moscow

Citizenship: Russia


Born on February 8, 1831 in Moscow. He graduated from the historical-philological faculty of Moscow University (1854). Serious influence on him philosophical ideas A. Schopenhauer, and in the future - E.Gartmana. Kozlov publishes a summary of the philosophical system E.Gartmana Philosophy unconscious Ed.Gartmana (1873-1875). In 1876 he was appointed assistant professor of the Department of Philosophy, University of Kiev. In 1884, he defended his doctoral thesis Kozlov The genesis of the theory of space and time in Kant and became a professor at the University of Kiev. In 1885-1887 publishes "The philosophical a quarterly" - Russia`s first philosophical journal. Among the most important works by Kozlov - Philosophical Studies (1876); Philosophy of science (1877); The philosophy of reality presentation system Duhring (1878); Modern trends in philosophy (1881-1882). After leaving due to illness in his resignation (1887) continues to engage in the philosophy, issues philosophical book "His word" (1888-1898). Kozlov died in St. Petersburg, February 27, 1901.

Kozlov own philosophical system called "the panpsychism". He recognized the connection of his views with a number of exercises of European philosophy, including Kant and Schopenhauer systems, but above all with the tradition of Leibnizian monadology (Leibnitz, Lotze, Teichmiiller). The human "I", according to Kozlov, has a spiritual substantiality, which is a prerequisite for the free creative activity of the person. The subjective, internal experiences are also active, and quite real. It is much more doubtful in the reality "outside" world. Strictly speaking, the concept of "panpsychism" external to the consciousness of the realities in the ontological sense, does not exist. The reality is pluralistic, it is nothing more than a set of individual substances, monads. "By being the original course and immediate reality and the reality of the substances with their operation and maintenance." Defending the principle of the substantial unity of the "I," Kozlov challenged attempts (Hume, positivists) to bring this unity to the complex associations either (a materialist version) to the physical and biochemical processes.

The ontological pluralism of the world, according to panpsychism theory involves a complex hierarchical organization. The highest of the substances recognized God in the minds of the world which only exists as a complete whole, beyond time and space. For other substances, monads world is given in a time dimension. However, time, Kozlov substantially subjective and can not be reduced to physical characteristics. Past and future are joined in the individual experience of the subject and there is inseparable from the desire, willpower, and the last hope. Kozlov also recognized the presence of the "transcendental", is not accessible to human knowledge of the form of being. But the main purpose of knowledge is to understand the hierarchy and relationships of various substances. That this problem is solved, according to Kozlov, philosophical sciences, to which he attributed metaphysics, logic, psychology, ethics and aesthetics.

Kantian ethics motifs present in Kozlov. It determines how moral "is meant to be" and is critical of the idea of ??the moral disposition and innate moral qualities. The possibility of moral action is directly associated with them problemoysvobody personality. Freedom of substantial sovereign individuals manifested in their quest for the highest good, but does not guarantee the achievement of positive results already "in this world." Absolute benefit and happiness belong to the sphere of "indefinite life", which is transcendental to all human experience. Kozlov critically evaluate the ethical doctrine, recognized as an important moral principle of the pursuit of happiness, personal or universal. In Schopenhauer`s spirit Kozlov argued that these aspirations are not only doomed to inevitable failure (in the earthly world of true happiness, both individual and universal, is unattainable in principle), but also lead to consequences far removed from any kind whatsoever moral ideals: a conflict of interest and hostility, to the utopian illusions. Kozlov formulates a kind of moral imperative that meets the general principles of panpsychism philosophy: "The purpose of human life is not happiness and enjoyment, and all-round improvement of our being through our activities connected with all the substances that make up the world."