Aleksandr Verhovskiy

Picture of Aleksandr Verhovskiy

Date of Birth: 11/27/1886

Age: 51

Place of birth: St. Petersburg

Citizenship: Russia


Page Corps and the Russian-Japanese War

Coming from an old noble family. He studied at the Corps of Pages. After the shooting demonstration January 9, 1905 stated that "considers it a shame to use weapons against unarmed crowds." He was expelled from the body, deprived of the rank of a page of cameras and sent "a volunteer non-commissioned officer rank" on the front of the Russian-Japanese war. He served in the 35th Artillery Brigade, the gunner in the 1st Mountain Division Artillery. On the night of 28 on July 29 during a reconnaissance distinguished by participating in the capture of a group of Japanese staff officers. For military distinction was awarded the decorations (George Cross) 4-th degree and promoted to lieutenant.

An officer of the General Staff

In 1905-1908 he served in the 3rd Finland shooting artillery battalion. He graduated from the Nikolaev Military Academy (1911). Since 1909 - a lieutenant, from 1911 - the captain, from 1913 - the captain. In 1911-1913 he commanded a company in the 2nd infantry regiment of Finland. Since 1913 - a senior aide of Staff 3rd Infantry Brigade of Finland. He was sent to Serbia to study the experience of the Serbian Army`s participation in the Balkan wars.

Participation in World War

With the outbreak of World War II he returned to Russia, together with his team participated in the battles in East Prussia as a part of 22th Army Corps 10th Army. For military distinctions awarded the George Arms and the Order of St. George 4-th degree. He was wounded, after leaving the hospital was on the staff work. Since 1915 - Head of the operative part of the Staff of the 22th Army Corps. Since August 1915 - and. d. the senior management department of the Adjutant Quartermaster General of the 9th Army. Since December 1915 - and. d. Assistant chief of management of the Quartermaster General of the 7th Army. From January 1916 - and. d. Senior Adjutant Branch Quartermaster General Staff of the 7th Army. Since March 1916 - Chief of Staff of Army Group organized for mastering Trebizond from the sea. Lieutenant Colonel (1916). During this period, he wrote in his diary:

Loss of faith in the command structure has become a common phenomenon and translates sometimes ugly forms: for example, corps and divisions on the signal of attack does not come out of the trenches and refuse to attack. This phenomenon has directly threatening.

Since September 1916 - Assistant of the operative part of the Romanian representative at the Russian headquarters. Since December 1916 - assistant to the flag-captain for the terrestrial part of the Chief of Staff of the landing of the Black Sea. Since February 1917 - and. d. Chief of Staff of a separate division of the Black Sea, which was supposed to take part in the Bosphorus landing operation.

After the February Revolution

Actively supported the February Revolution, in March 1917 he was elected as a member and vice-chairman of the Sevastopol Board of Workers` Deputies. Draft Regulation on local soldiers` committees, adopted on 30 March. I support the efforts of the Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral Kolchak to maintain order in the army and navy. I thought that

now it became clear that the mass revolution understood as liberation from labor, to perform the duty, as the immediate cessation of the war. We must do something to stop this movement, take it in hand, to save at least what is possible, from the army. We must hold on to this army to the world. We need officers zaklyuchitsoyuz with the best part of soldier masses and direct the movement so to win the growing anarchist start and maintain the strength of our troops and ships.

At the end of March 1917 he was sent to Petrograd to work in the commission to revise the statutes and regulations in accordance with the new legal regulations. Then he returned to Sevastopol, where he actively participated in the work of the committees. Join the party of Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs).

He was promoted to colonel. From May 31 (June 12), 1917 - commander of the Moscow Military District. In July 1917 under his command troops suppressed the soldiers` performance in Nizhny Novgorod, Tver, Vladimir, Lipetsk, Yelets and OE This Verkhovskii these actions were supported by the Soviet of Workers` and Soldiers` Deputies, which constitute the majority in the Socialist-Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats ( Mensheviks).

In August 1917 he tried to convince General LG Kornilov to abandon his speech. When this performance is still held, was his opponent declared the Moscow military district under martial law, identified five regiments to strike at Mogilev, where was the General Headquarters (however, these actions were unnecessary). On his orders, they were arrested or removed from their posts Kornilov supporters in Moscow raided the Moscow department of the army and navy officers of the Union.

The Minister of War

From 30 August (12 September), 1917 - Minister of War of the Provisional Government, 1 September (14 September), 1917 promoted to major general. In September 1917, he was a member of the Board of Directors, composed of five Ministers, headed by AF Kerensky. Held partial demobilization, he tried to improve the fighting capacity of the army crumbling. Tried to update the supreme command staff, initiated the appointment to key positions of young officers (commander of the Petrograd Military District, Colonel Polkovnikova, commander of the Moscow Military District Colonel Ryabtsev), which subsequently showed indecision in the struggle against the Bolshevik revolution. According to Alexander Kerensky, "he was not only able to control the situation, but even to understand it" and swam quickly "without a rudder and without sails" straight toward catastrophe. Activities Verkhovskii as minister has caused sharp criticism from representatives of the Generalitat, including AI Denikin.

October 18 (October 31), 1917, at a meeting of the Provisional Government called for the conclusion of peace with Germany, but received no support from the rest members of the government. The next day, he filed resignation. October 20 (November 2) set out its position in the joint meeting of the Defence and Foreign Affairs Council of the Russian Republic (Pre-Parliament), stating that

Soon the news of the world will not hesitate to make an army of health-promoting in the beginning, which will make it possible, based on the most integral part of the power to suppress anarchy at the front and in the rear. And since most of the world opinion will take considerable time ... you can expect to recreate the combat power of the army, which in turn will benefit the peace themselves.

However, it was not supported in the Pre-Parliament. October 21 (November 3), was dismissed in a two-week vacation and the next day went to Valaam, where he was at the time the Bolsheviks came to power.

Anti-Bolshevik activity

3 November (16 November), 1917, he returned to Petrograd, then went to General Headquarters in Mogilev, where, together with the Party Central Committee members took part in an attempt to SRs organization "homogeneous socialist government". In December 1917, on behalf of the leadership of the Socialist Revolutionary Party arrived in Kiev to organize jointly with the Ukrainian Rada fight against the Soviet regime by creating an "army of the Constituent Assembly." Then he returned to Petrograd, where he soon was briefly arrested. He was one of the leaders of the Petrograd military organization of the center-left Union of Russia`s revival. He published his wartime diaries under the title "Russian Calvary." Since June 1918 he was imprisoned at the Petrograd prison "Crosses".

in the Red Army service

In December 1918 he was released and joined the Red Army, briefly served as chief of operations of Staff of the Petrograd Military District. I requested to send him to the front, but the Bolsheviks did not trust Verkhovsky, sent him to the rear militia. In May - October 1919 was again imprisoned. Since October 1919 - the inspector of military schools Reserve Army, taught a course on tactics Kazan engineering courses. On May 2, 1920 - a member of the Special Meeting of the Commander in Chief (along with other generals of the Russian army). On June 2, 1920 it was at the disposal of the Main Directorate of military educational institutions. Since 12 August 1920 - Chief Inspector of military educational institutions of the republic. In 1922 he was a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference.

In 1922 he was involved as a witness in the investigation of the case of the Right SRs. During this period, formally renounced political activity. Testified investigator Ya Agranov who said Verkhovsky on behalf of the board of the GPU and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) that these readings are needed to elucidate the historical role of the Social Revolutionary Party, and not to bring its members to justice. When his statements were used in court, he protested, after which the Supreme Tribunal issued a special ruling against a Agranova (for "obvious irregularity in the examination of a witness"), and Verkhovskii that "an active and responsible officer of the Red Army and, consequently, the Republic of Labour is entitled to demand from him the highest vigilance and intolerance against all enemies of the Workers` and Peasants` Russia `.

The military theorist

Since 1921 - the teacher, since June 1922 - chief director of the Military Academy of the Red Army, from 1927 - professor. Author of several works on military theory and history, published in "Military Knowledge" magazine.

He came to the conclusion that the mass armies, such as those that took part in the First World War, eventually recede into the past. The future seen in the small but well-equipped elite armed forces - compared them with medieval knightly armies. He defended the idea of ??the superiority of a small but professional army of more size, but less trained and equipped at the same time on the basis of universal conscription. This position Verkhovskii provoked sharp criticism from the majority of Soviet military theorists, who were supporters of mass armies. Podderzhaldrugogo renowned military theorist Alexander Svechin military debate of the 1920s, opposed the theory of "smashing" the enemy (ie, exclusive rates on the offensive) and calling more attention to defense.

The arrest and imprisonment

December 23, 1929 - Chief of Staff of the North Caucasian Military District. Arrested on 2 February 1931 in the case of "Spring" (which forms the "military experts" - former officers of the Russian army), he was in Voronezh remand prison, then was transferred to Moscow in Lefortovo. She refused to sign the evidence satisfied the investigation.

July 18, 1931 Collegium of OGPU sentenced to death, December 2, 1931 the sentence was replaced with ten years of imprisonment. He was in Yaroslavl political isolator, where he continued to engage in research activities (in particular, wrote the works "On Military Research", "On the deep tactics"). Twice went on hunger strike, demanding a retrial. Later described the prison conditions:

I was seated alone, deprived of all contact with his family or even other prisoners. The prison regime was deliberately thought out so as to turn it into a moral torture. Deny all, including the possibility to come to the window and feed the birds sing, and even though in a low voice. In prison, there were cases of insanity, hanging and so on. N.

His article entitled "Conclusions on the experience of the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905 in terms of our struggle against Japanese imperialism in 1934" Defense Commissar Voroshilov sent to Stalin with a proposal to release the author from prison. He was released early on September 17, 1934. After his release from prison sent the People`s Commissar of Defense statement which described the illegal methods of investigation and the difficult conditions in prison. In addition, trying to stand up for other prisoners, he wrote that

miscarriage of justice as a result of this method of investigation is not a unit. In Yaroslavl political prison there are a number of people standing on the point of view, close to the party, which could be his energy and knowledge useful in the construction of socialism. They are guilty only as I can tell, they did not have the toughness they have disgraced themselves and others. That face similar category without guilt in prison, brings harm to the Soviet regime.

The resumption of pedagogical activity

It was placed at the disposal of the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army, was preparing articles for the Intelligence information collection. From 1935 he taught at the "shot" courses at the Frunze Military Academy. Since 1936 - a senior leader of the Department of Tactics of the Military Academy of the General Staff.

New arrest and death

March 11, 1938 was arrested. Accused of active subversive activities, participation in the anti-Soviet military conspiracy, preparation of terrorist acts against the leaders of the party and government. One of the "proofs" of his involvement in the preparation of terrorist acts have served as found during the search Verkhovskii premium gun he had received in 1916 for distinction in battles with the Germans.

July 26, 1938, Stalin and Molotov signed the warrant for his execution. August 19 sentenced to death by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court and on the same day shot and buried on sensitive sites "Kommunarka" (Moscow region).