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Aleksandr Vasilchikov

Picture of Aleksandr Vasilchikov

Date of Birth: 07/11/1818

Age: 62

Place of birth: St. Petersburg

Citizenship: Russia

Background

Vasilchikov entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. For that time it was rare in aristocratic families in which children are usually educated, or at home, or in their estates schools. After graduation Vasilchikov did not dare enter the service - so little attracted him to her those days her condition. Vasilchikov looking for a live performance. In 1840, Baron Ghana was entrusted to the introduction of new administrative orders Caucasus. He has chosen to staff the young educated people, among whom was also Vasilchikov. This mission gave the then important as the experience of the new citizenship; but a year later the work of Baron Ghana was stopped, and Vasilchikov retired. During his stay in the Caucasus Vasilchikova he`s second with a duel between Martynov and Lermontov, for which he was betrayed by a military court. Emperor Nicholas I forgave him, "in consideration of the merits of his father." In 1845 Vasilchikov enlisted in II part of His Majesty`s Office. With special attention to the Emperor Nicholas I followed the way of thinking of those young men whose fathers had held high positions in the service and enjoyed its location. At the time of Vasilchikova possess always much doleyu independence in society began to express an opinion as a man with "freedom-loving" views. Although this and found no particular fault, but all judgments Vasilchikova and debate it in public on the subject of "freedom of speech" did not look particularly favorably. Love of freedom young Vasilchikova soon became known and most sovereign. According to one of his friends Vasilchikova, Nikolai Pavlovich once even called him in and, strictly condemning his opinions in society, if not recommending the young man told him to "change." On this Vasilchikov openly declared sovereign, that he does not acknowledge any guilt, and then heard the energetic repetition of the word "variable." His service was not satisfied Vasilchikov and soon moved to the Novgorod province in the first position of the county, and later the provincial leader of nobility. This change is explained by the following words of Vasilchikova: "From an early age I felt the insignificance of clerical services and the need to know the people of life and the order of service is Petersburg, where everything is presented in a false light - in the province and in the country where the sad and peacefully flowing working life ". Head Vasilchikova by Part II, Count Bludov, did not dare to report to the emperor on the transition Vasilchikova in the province, because the mindset Vasilchikova considered not entirely trustworthy and that all on the class representatives viewed with suspicion. But Vasilchikov found support in the then Minister of the Court, Prince Volkonsky, who reported to the Emperor of the new official status Vasilchikova. To live in the province for people like Vasilchikov, then it is difficult. In fulfilling its obligations under the letter of the law, Vasilchikov made himself a reputation for dangerous because, pursuing, on a post of the leader, immoral and cruel landlords, he opened all the horrors of serfdom. On the next triennium Vasilchikov he did not want to run for leader, he settled in his estate Kovno province and engaged in farming. The development of the first assumptions about the liberation of the peasants, but the number of people calling for the case, was not Vasilchikova, who looked suspicious. Then came the Crimean War, Vasilchikova attracted into the ranks of the militia. Chief of Staff of the army was the brother of Prince Victor Vasilchikova Illarionovich; thereby Vasilchikov could know not only the facts, but also the causes of our defeat. Unsuccessful war ended; militia dispersed general mood at the best part of Russian society, which "can not continue to live like this." Again we are talking about the liberation of the peasants. Vasilchikov took an active part in private meetings and campaigned in favor of the reforms, being in close relationship with Yu Samarin and N. Milyutin. In an effort to more vigorous activity, he assumed the duties of a member of the Novgorod provincial on Peasant Affairs. From 1865 to 1872 he was a member of the district and in the old Russian Novgorod Zemsky provincial assemblies. He participated as a major landowner in the institutions under the Ministry of State Property (the so-called Valuev) "Commission for the study of Agriculture and rural productivity in Russia", which insisted that the "knot question of improving agriculture is tax reform." Since 1872 Vasilchikov was chairman of the St. Petersburg Department of Slavonic Committee. In the summer of 1881 Vasilchikov was invited as a competent person to participate in the discussion on lowering the redemption payments. Literary activity Vasilchikova concerned most lively issues of our time; what he said as a writer, it was closely connected with his public activity. The first, in chronological order, is its brochure "Russian administrator modern school", with a preface by Yu Samarin (BA, 1868). It`s - response to the note of the governor of Pskov (later Deputy Minister of Interior ext.), Obukhov recommended, at the time, the Ministry ext. Affairs of the attention of all Russian administrators. Most Vasilchikov rebels against the author of the proposed intervention in the administration of the note zemskoe business and the systematic refusal zemstvo in support of the Government. He can not accept the fact that the mass of the Russian people - "a pure force of nature", and that the urgent need for a minute - "meeting and conservative elements of the connection." In the essay "On Self-Government" (1st edition 1869; 2nd edition, 1872), written as indicated in the introduction, in the era of doubt fruitfulness began, made in Russian life of the peasant and rural reforms Vasilchikov set out to solve the asked what should be done to implement the conditions under which people could enjoy the rights and the reform would bring the expected benefits received. This question Vasilchikov permits consideration of the history of self-government in other nations. Giving an advantage in this regard, England, Vasilchikov defines self-management "as the people involved in the local internal management." An essential element of self Vasilchikov recognizes the complete independence of local authorities, within the limits of the law. This independence is consolidated gradually, and can discern three periods in its formation: 1) the desire to ensure that taxes and duties, will set out the central authority, to lay on the ground for reasons of local residents; 2) assignment of expenditure Zemsky Zemsky charges local authorities, and 3) the transfer of control to local authorities over the layout and expenditure of fees, as well as judicial functions. The question of whether it is possible to self-government on Russian soil, Vasilchikov permits affirmative and finds that the slogan of the Zemstvo is not social "fraternity" or political equality and zemskoe equation. The basis of the whole life of the County he puts tenure; proper development of the County organization should, in his opinion, lead to a peaceful resolution of all social, agrarian and political issues. The author also points out the measures to promote the "Zemsky" well-being: the revision of laws on the transfer of the companies, the expansion of colonization and put farmers government land conversion parish in obschesoslovnoe institution unit credit associations and workers` cooperatives, the introduction of compulsory insurance against fire and of mortality cattle and the establishment of income tax. Attaching the greatest importance to mental and moral education of the people, Vasilchikov sees two ways for it: the training, through the schools, and practical - through people`s participation in local meetings and courts, but because the principal organs of the Russian government thinks public school, Provincial Assembly and the World Court. Objecting to view, recognizing the self-unthinkable without national representation, Vasilchikov allows it and the most centralized form of government, but believes that the proper development of self-government must inevitably lead eventually to an agreement on local needs with the benefit of all States. In the pamphlet "Letter to the Minister of Education Count Tolstoy from Prince Vasilchikova" (BA, 1875) Vasilchikov does not recognize the values ??of classicism antidote towards the nihilistic ideas; he thinks, on the contrary, that the study of classical antiquity is likely to settle in the young minds tendency to skepticism. Condemning the desire to hinder the majority of access to education, in favor of a better Vasilchikov device sredneuchebnyh institutions and for the disclosure of the door to the university not alone gymnasium pupils. In the book "Land tenure and agriculture in Russia and in other European countries" (1st edition, 1876; 2nd edition, 1881) Vasilchikov asks whether a high degree of civilization to be achieved in other ways, without errors and injustices that marked where development of agrarian relations. The author does not think that all people should have to undergo the same vicissitudes; he finds that "Russia is in agrarian relations in a better position than other countries, that the property we have distributed more evenly than other nations, and in the general fund of the national wealth is we have quite space-free assets to equalize as much as possible social irregularities. " Likewise Vasilchikov was convinced that Russian society in its historical development has not passed yet the fateful turn when the peace agreements and the conversion becomes unenforceable due to the fact that the interests of different classes of people, touching and close to each other, come already with one another in rivalry and struggle . Etoyborby Russia does not have, and it is desirable, "so we used the interim period when the social relations we have not yet fully established, poresheniya for the truth and justice of the agrarian question which has caused so much confusion all the peoples of the ancient world and the new." Vasilchikov found that the state should come to the aid the agricultural class, pointing to ways of migrations by providing it with the necessary means and for facilitating its taxable burdens. Not without interest Vasilchikova relation to communal ownership of land, which he considered necessary to keep as a form of land ownership, but by making it greater legal relations. He found in the community is not small artificial accretions and wished to further suppression of the custom was paralyzed, and that tradition was given the opportunity to improve. The emergence Vasilchikova works was almost an event. It has been noticed not only the most prominent at the time the Russian press agencies, and foreign literature. They were caused by the article Golovacheva, Kostychev, Leroy-Beaulieu and book VI Guerrier and BN Chicherina "Russian amateurism and communal land tenure" (Wiley, 1878). The brochure "Small land loan" (1876) Prince Vasilchikov belongs only to the first part of the loan required; second, written by AV Yakovlev, contains technical guidance for the implementation of the loan. In the same 1876 Vasilchikov wrote an essay on the Eastern question, remaining not printed. Excerpts from it, given biographer of Prince Vasilchikova, Golubev, show that, according to Vasilchikova, East question created a desire to paralyze the relationship between Russia and the Slavic tribes. Recognizing the historical basis of this communication, Vasilchikov in favor of the expulsion of the Turks from Europe and the impact of their territory to the Slavs and Greeks. The latter, by the time of publication, Vasilchikova Prince brochure "Rural life and agriculture of Russia" (1881) is a concise synopsis of his works "Land tenure and agriculture." After the death of Vasilchikova there were numerous articles about his activities, such as AD Gradovsky in the "Week" (1881,