Alcide De Gasperi
Date of Birth: 04/03/1881
Place of birth: Trento
Alcide De Gasperi was born on 3 April 1881 in the town of Pieve Tesino (Pieve Tesino), located 40 km east of Trento (Trento), which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary). His father was a local police with very limited means.
Since 1896 De Gasperi took an active part in the socio-Christian movement. In 1900 he joined the faculty of literature and philosophy in Vienna (Vienna), where he played an important role in the formation of the Christian student movement.
In 1904, De Gasperi was one of the key participants in a student demonstration, serving for universities, where teaching is conducted in Italian, and even hit three weeks in jail along with other protesters. In 1905, De Gasperi received a degree in philology.
In the same year he got a job as editor of the newspaper `La Voce Cattolica`, and in September 1906 moved to` Il Trentino` and after a while it became redaktorom.V his newspaper he often spoke in favor of the cultural autonomy of Trentino (Trentino) and protect Italian culture in Trentino, in contrast to the plans of the German radical nationalists to complete Germanization of the population in Tirol (Tyrol). Curiously, while De Gasperi never asked whether or not the Trentino belong to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and believed that if a referendum 90% of the population of Trentino prefers the popular Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I (Franz Joseph I) accession perspective to Italy (Italy).
In 1911 he became a member of parliament from the People`s Political Union Trentino and held this position for 6 years. He remained politically neutral during the First World War, which was conducted in Vienna, as well as his home region went to Italy as part of the postwar settlement, he took Italian citizenship.
In 1919, de Gasperi became one of the founders of the People`s Party Italian served as a deputy of the Italian Parliament from 1921 to 1924 - a period when the Italian raised his head fascism. At first he supported Benito Mussolini (Benito Mussolini), but soon broke with him in opinion on certain issues, and became secretary of the anti-fascist group in May 1924.
In November 1926, in an open violence and intimidation by the Nazis, the party was dissolved. De Gasperi was arrested in March 1927 and sentenced to four years in prison. Vatican (Vatican) managed to negotiate his release in July 1928, but De Gasperi undermined health in prison and remained unemployed. He experienced serious financial difficulties, while in 1929 did not get a job cataloguer in the Vatican library, where he spent the next 14 years until the defeat of Italian fascism in July 1943.
In 1944 he became the first Secretary General of the Christian Democrats, the new party, which dominated in the Parliament over the next decades, and from 1945 to 1953 served as prime minister of eight successive Christian Democratic governments. During this time, Italy became a republic (1946), signed a peace treaty with the Allies (1947), became a member of NATO (the NATO) in 1949 and an ally of the United States (United States), which helped to revive the Italian economy through the Marshall Plan. During the same period Italy became a member of the European Coal and Steel Community (European Coal and Steel Community), which eventually became the European Union.
He was appointed president of the Community in 1954, and although the project ultimately failed, De Gasperi helped develop the idea of ??a common European Defence Policy. In 1952, for his contribution to European unification and peace processes, he received the prestigious International Charlemagne Prize (Charlemagne Prize) in the German city of Aachen (Aachen).
De Gasperi died on August 19, 1954 in his native Trento, at the age of 73 years.