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Abram Ioffe

Picture of Abram Ioffe

Date of Birth: 10/29/1880

Age: 79

Place of birth: Romny Poltava province.

Citizenship: Russia

Background

Abram Fedorovich Ioffe was born October 29 (NS) 1880 Romny Poltava province, Soviet physicist, academician of the USSR (1920, Corresponding Member of 1918), Vice-President of the USSR (1926-29, 1942-45), Hero of Socialist labor (1955).

In 1902 he graduated from the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology and the University of Munich in 1905. In 1903-06 he worked as an assistant VK Roentgen in Munich, where he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Since 1906 in St. Petersburg (1924 - Leningrad) Polytechnic Institute (Professor in 1913-48).

In 1913 he was awarded the Post doctorate master`s degree in physics, and in 1915 for the study of elastic and electrical properties of quartz - a doctorate in physics. Since 1918 the head of organized at his suggestion of Physics and Technology Department of the State X-ray and Radiological Institute in St. Petersburg, and then until 1951 the director of the Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR, created on the basis of this division.

Since 1952 Director of the Laboratory of semiconductors, from 1955 - the Institute of Semiconductors of the USSR. Since 1932 Joffe - Director of Physics and Agronomy Institute also organized on his initiative. At the initiative of Joffe and his participation had been established physical and technical institutes in Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Sverdlovsk, Tomsk.

In 1913, Joffe established the statistical nature of the departure of the individual electrons in the external photoeffect. Together with MV Kirpicheva first elucidate the mechanism of electrical conductivity of ionic crystals (1916-1923). Together with staff Kirpicheva and MA Levitical in 1924 received important results in the field of strength and plasticity of crystals. In studies Joffe developed X-ray method for studying the plastic deformation.

In 1931, he first drew attention to the need to study semiconductors as the new materials for electronics and has taken their comprehensive study. They (together with AV Ioffe) was established method of determining the basic quantities characterizing the properties of semiconductors.

Study Joffe and his school of electrical properties of semiconductors (1931-40) led to the creation of scientific classification. This work laid the foundation for the development of new areas of semiconductor technology - thermal and photovoltaic generators and thermoelectric cooling devices.

In 1942 he was awarded the State Prize for Research in the field of semiconductors. The most important merit Joffe - creating schools of physics, from which came many of the major Soviet scientists (AP Alexandrov, Artsimovich, Kapitza, Kikoin, Kurchatov, PI Lukirskii, NN Semenov, Frenkel et al.).

Paying a lot of attention to pedagogical issues, organized a new type of physical faculties - the Faculty of Physics and Technology to train engineers, physicists at the Polytechnic Institute in Petrograd (1918). Awarded 3 orders of Lenin. In 1961 Joffe was posthumously awarded the Lenin Prize. Honorary member of the Academy of Sciences and many scientific societies in the world.