Abigail Smith Adams
The first hostess of the White House
Wife of the 2nd US President John Adams (John Adams) and the mother of the 6th US President John Quincy Adams (John Quincy Adams).She was the first Second Lady of the United States (United States) and the second First Lady (March 4, 1797 to March 4, 1801) .
When he was John Adams Continental Congress delegate his duties led to a long separation from his family, because he had to spend much time in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia,Pennsylvania), which was then the capital of the United States. Abigail Adams wrote to her husband, with whom they were very close, a lot of letters. John often asked for advice from Abigail on many matters, and their letters are filled with intellectual discussions on government and politics. Currently, these letters are of great value as an eyewitness of the American War of Independence.
Abigail Smith was born on November 11, 1744 in Weymouth, Massachusetts (Weymouth, Massachusetts), in the family of the Rev. William Smith (William Smith) and his wife Elizabeth Smith (Elizabeth Smith), nee Quincy. On the maternal side of the family came from Abigail Quincy, Massachusetts gave many prominent politicians. So, Quincy, Dorothy (Dorothy Quincy), wife of John Hancock (John Hancock), the first governor of the province of Massachusetts, was her cousin. Abigail was also great-granddaughter of the Rev. John Norton (John Norton),founder of the Church of Old Ship Church in Hingeme, Massachusetts (Hingham, Massachusetts), the only surviving public building in the state of the 17th century. Many of her ancestors were priests Congregational Church and local community leaders.
Father brought her, stressing the importance of reason and morality. Abigail grew up a sickly child ,and parents believed that it is sturdy enough for school. Her education was engaged mother and older sisters. Her father, grandfather and uncle collected a huge library, with which the sisters studied English and French literature. Intellectually Abigail was highly developed, and, ultimately ,her ideas about the rights of women and the government played an important, albeit indirect role in the United States based. She became one of the most erudite women who have ever worn the title of First Lady.
Being cousins, Abigail and John had known each other since childhood, but he drew attention to it only in 1762 ,When Abigail turned into a miniature shy seventeen year old girl, who never parted with books. He was struck by her knowledge of poetry, philosophy, and politics, it is very unusual for a woman at that time. Although Abigail `s father approved the marriage, her mother was horrified by the fact that her little girl is going to marry a rural lawyer ,which still smells of cows, but in the end, she gave up. They were married on October 25, 1764, in the house of the Smiths in Weymouth, and crowned their father of the bride. After receiving a couple sat in a cart pulled by a horse, and went to his new home, which was a small cottage on the farm that John had inherited from his father in BraintreeMassachusetts (Braintree, Massachusetts), later renamed Quincy, where they lived before moving to Boston (Boston).
The marriage, which lasted more than half a century, was a happy one. In ten years, Abigail gave birth to five children, but the third child, baby Susanna (Susanna Adams) died, she almost one year and a month. Abigail sixth pregnancy ended in miscarriage. Since the work of her husband demanded constant trips, children and the economy were on the Abigail, who was brought up in his family`s tradition of first children and then grandchildren.
In 1784 Abigail joined her husband during his diplomatic mission in Paris (Paris). In March 1797 the first Adams of the 1st ViceUS President became the 2nd President, and with the move of the capital to Washington (Washington) Abigail has become the first owner of the White House (White House), which was then called the President`s house (President`s House). She took an active part in politics, in contrast to the silent presence of Martha Washington (Martha Washington).Abigail Adams was so politically active that her political opponents began calling her ` Mrs Prezident`. After the termination of the authority of John Adams` family returned to Quincy, where Abigail closely followed the political career of his son.
She died on October 28, 1818, did not live two weeks before his 74th birthday, of typhoid fever. The last words she tried to comfort the husband who survived her nearly eight years.